Stanford’s latest breakthrough: logical door calculation is super simple with light quantum!

Today’s many quantum computers are complicated, it is difficult to expand the scale, and it is necessary to run more colder than the interstellar space.These challenges cause researchers to explore the possibility of constructing quantum computers operating using photon (photon).Photons can easily transfer information from one place to another, and photonic quantum computers can operate at room temperature, so this method is very promising.However, although people have successfully created a separate quantum "logic gate", a large number of logical doors are constructed with photons and connect them in a reliable manner to perform complex calculations, or a technical problem.

Recently, Stanford University researchers have proposed a simpler photon quantum computer design, and can be used along the ready-made components. According to a paper published on Journal Optica on November 29, they proposed using lasers to manipulate individual atoms, while individual atoms can modify the state of photons by a phenomenon called "quantum invisible path". The atom can also be reset and reused in many quantum doors, so that there is no need to construct a plurality of different physical doors, which greatly reduces the complexity of constructing light quantum computers.

"Normally, if you want to build this type of quantum computer, you must use thousands of quantum transmitters to keep them perfect, then integrated into a huge photon circuit," application physics doctoral student The first author BEN BEN BARTLETTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTLET, and we only need a few relatively simple components, and the size of the machine does not increase with the size of the quantum program you want to run. " A very simple design requires only several devices: fiber optic cable, beam splitter, a pair of optical switches and optical cavities.

Fortunately, these components already exist and are already commercially used and continuously improved because they are currently used in quantum calculations. For example, telecommunications companies have been committed to improving fiber optic cables and optical switches. "The proposal of this program is based on people’s efforts and investment in people who have made these components. The professor of Stanford Engineering, Shanhui Fan, senior author of the papers. "They are not new components specifically used for quantum computing."

New design

The design of Stanford scientists consists of two main parts: a storage ring and a scattering unit.The function of the memory ring is similar to the memory in the normal computer, which is a fiber loop including a plurality of photons propagated around the loop. Similar to the bit of storage information in the classic computer, in this system, each photon represents a quantum bit. The photons determine the value of the quantum bits around the traveling direction of the storage ring, which may be 0 or 1. Further, since the photon is in the superimposed state, a single photon can simultaneously flow in both directions, which means the value of the combination of 0 and 1.

Figure 1. Photon quantum computer architecture described in this work.

(a) Physical design of the equipment. The photon quantum bit is reversely propagated by the fiber storage ring, and the optical switch can selectively guide the photon interaction with the atomic interaction in the cavity by the scattering unit, and the cavity is coherentiated in the cavity.

(b) The energy structure of the atom: ω1 is resonant to the cavity mold and the photon carrier frequency, and ω0 is far apart.

(c) the description of the BLOCH sphere on the photon quantum bit state {|?, |?} foundation and an operation applying the scattering unit. About rotation

Progressor and beam splitter apply a fixed angle (gray), and rotate

Apply a cavity laser using a lumen laser using a controlled angle θ (pure red). The projection measuring atom transmits this to the photon, but may exceed the target angle θ through π (red dashed line) depends on the measurement result m. ??This operation is a universal original single quantum bit: By combining multiple such operations, and The subsequent rotation angle is adjusted according to the measurement results, and any single quantum ratio can be determined.

The researchers can manipulate photons by directing photons from the memory ring to the scattering unit, where it propagates to cavities containing a single atom. The photon is then interacting with atoms, resulting in "entanglement", which is a quantum, and two particles can even affect each other at a very far distance. Then, the photon returns the storage ring, and then the state of the atom is changed again. Because the atoms and photons are entangled, the operation of the atom will also affect the state of their pairing photons.

Figure 2. Quantum gate sequence corresponding to photons pass through the scattering unit. The projection measurement will be transferred to the photon quantum bits to the rotation of atom quantum bits.

"By measuring the state of the atom, you can transfer the operation to the photon," Ben Bartlett said. "So we only need a controllable atom quantum bit, we can use it as a proxy to indirect all other photon quantum bits.

Because any quantum logic door can be compiled into a series of operations performed on a single particle, in principle, you can use only one controllable "atomic agent quantum bit" to run any size quantum program. In order to run the program, the code is converted to a series of operations, which guides the photon to the scattering unit and manipulate the atom quantum bit. Because you can control atoms and photon interactions, the same device can run many different quantum programs.

Figure 3. Conceptual diagram of the instruction sequence to compile the quantum circuit into the device to be executed on the device.

(a) Universal target quantum circuit.

(b) Decompose the equivalent circuit and the CσZ door of single quantum bit.

(c) The circuit is further decomposed into a series of scattering interactions. This sequence can be assembled into a command set on the classic computer, including six different primitives corresponding to physical actions.

(d) The controllable elements of the quantum device are optical switches, cavity lasers and atomic states.

"For many photon quantum computers, the physical structure passed by photons represents different logic doors, so if you want to change the running program, it usually involves physically reconfiguring hardware," Bartlett said. "And under this new design, you don’t need to change hardware, just need to give a different set of instructions for machines."

Intelligent grid platform boost grassroots governance

This newspaper, Chengdu, November 30 (Reporter Zhang Wen) "Discovered Fire!" Not long ago, there was a unattended warehouse in Chengdu, Sichuan Province.The "Large Linkage · Microscale" intelligent grid analysis platform automatic alarm, information is pushed to the handheld terminal of the full-time grid and fire rescue personnel, and the fire is avoided.

Since last year, the Qudu District has been organized by public areas, introducing the front-end video intelligence analysis algorithm, built a "large linkage, micelling" intelligent grid analysis platform.The platform can automatically capture the electric bicycle into the elevator, the motor vehicle is chaos, the sudden fire, the water quality pollution of the river is automatically captured, synchronized.Introduction to the person in charge of the Grid Services Management Center of the Sub-Surface: "It can be found with the intelligent grid analysis platform, and it can be found that the abnormal situation is convenient and efficient."

"People’s Daily" (December 01, 2021)

Insight | Federal learning, formation encryption, fuzzy extractor? A new generation of biological identification technology enhanced privacy protection

"Zhi Zhou Insight" is a new research brand of machinery PRO, focusing on new generation of new generation of artificial intelligence technology, surrounding artificial intelligence academic exploration and engineering technology hot research direction in-depth exploration, tracking the latest AI technology route, analyzing mature Situation, insight into potential technology iterative opportunities. "Zhou Yaojing · Trusted AI" special series focuses on building a new generation of artificial intelligence technology for the purpose of building credible AI systems, expanding specific discussion around privacy protection, interpretable, fairness and robustness increase.

Write | Machine heart Pro

This section is selected from the "Zhou Insight" report series "Available Ai" topic "Privacy Protection Enhancement New Generation Biological Recognition Technology". The core of the machine will continue to surround a new generation of AI technology to build "credible AI" to issue technical insights, survey reports, organized online sharing and technical discussions, etc. Get full verse reports and event notifications.

This report has received many experts with great professional opinions. Special acknowledgment (sorted by surname’s first letters): Harbin Institute of Technology Science and Technology, Ph.D. Han Jiqing, Dr. Lei Zhen, Dr. Lei Zhen, Zhejiang University Network Professor Renkui, Dean of Space Safety, Dr. Tang Linpeng, Chief Technology Officer of Muqi Technology, Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Professor Zhang Junping, Computer Science and Technology, Fudan University


  • Dual-law implementation, enhance the privacy protection capacity of biometric system to reduce system security risk, abuse tracking and governance technology, biological information deducting, anonymization, etc.

  • AI Times Biological identification application broke out, biometric authentication replaces password in a large number of scenes, discloses, and the biological template cannot be changed or recovered once it is leaked. Enhanced the protection of biological templates is a key link to enhance biometric system privacy protection capabilities

  • The new generation of credible biometric systems should have irreversible, revocable, non-associated technical features. Feature transformation, biological encryption can enhance protection of biological templates.

  • Head Internet enterprise, AI technology company laboratory, research team has launched the privacy protection technology upgrade of biological identification system, such as strengthening biological template encryption technology research, using federal learning, multi-mode fusion and other computational and verification methods; Some emerging companies are also exploring a biometric technology solution that is more easy to use, higher security, and privacy privacy.

With the implementation of the data security law, the implementation of the personal information protection law, the market is upgraded to the upgrade technology, using the new generation of privacy protection to improve the need to heat up the needs of the biometric system, from the technical breakthrough, improve the safety of biometric system, and realize biometric identification The privacy capacity of the system is imminent. Accordingly, the research and development of biometric technology to construct a new generation of confident AI system capabilities is also rising.

In October 2020, China Xinyiyuan Terminal Laboratory United Telecom Terminal Industry Association, Telecom Terminal Industry Association, China Internet Association, Internet Financial Identification Alliance and Mobile APP Innovation and Personal Information Protection Laboratory joint release "Biological identification privacy protection The research report ", eight dimensions for the privacy protection of biometric system, and extended the technical topics that need to be solved, the machine’s heart is summarized as follows:

New generation biometric technology design for privacy protection

When designing a biometric identity authentication system architecture, the full process of biological data security and biometric verification accuracy is the two most important aspects that need to be considered simultaneously [6]. At the time of the technical selection of biometric applications, the recognition accuracy and ease of use of different biometric techniques also have a large difference, and the following figure shows the different types of biometric technology in terms of recognition accuracy and ease of use. Case.

The credible AI system should have the ability to protect the biological information template when using biometric identification. The ISO / IEC 30136 standard is given a method of evaluating the accuracy, confidentiality and privacy of the biological identification template, specifically indicating that in terms of security and privacy protection, IRREVERSIBILITY, unlinkability Features.

National Standard "Information Technology Safety Technology Biological Characteristics Identification Information" (Draft for Comment) also pointed out that biometric identification systems should meet confidentiality, integrity, and updateability and cancellation, and specify biometric identification information. The following requirements: irreversibility, negligibility, confidentiality. Furthermore, the available biological template protection mechanism achieves the objective features such as irreversibility, cancellation, non-correlation, and features of Performance (Performance) [9].

Increase the core fortress of the privacy capacity of biological identification system: biological template protection

Biometric identity certification is generally divided into two stages of registration and verification. The common biometric identity authentication system architecture is as follows, where t represents the biometric sample obtained when registration, Q is the query biometric sample obtained when identified, XT and XQ are template and query feature set, S represent match results [6 ].

The biometric data is scanned in the registration phase to determine a group of different biometric sets, called biometrics templates. Bioinformatics template data leaks are also the focus of personal information protection. Unlike passwords or secret key schemes, the biological information template is unlike password, once the leaks cannot be changed or recovered [8]. The following figure shows the main security vulnerability zone in the biometric system [6].

Biological template protection: technical methods such as characteristic transformation and bioconagration

Protecting biometric templates from a variety of hacker attacks is a vital issue. Protecting biometric templates Mainly include characteristic transform and biological encryption two sets of technical routes [6], including template encryption, can revoke biological identification, mixing methods, formative encryption, visual cryptography, etc. [6] The following table further summarizes the relevant technical methods.

Trusted biological identification technology upgrade: large factory and start-up enterprises have joined racing

Head Internet enterprise, AI technology company laboratory, research team has launched the privacy protection technology upgrade of biological identification system, such as strengthening biological template encryption technology research, using federal learning, multi-mode fusion and other computational and verification methods; Some emerging companies are also exploring more easy, high security, privacy biological identification programs and products, such as Miqi Technology, with non-contact finger and refer to the vein collection method, using multi-scale-based multi-scale Feature extraction and heterogeneous high performance ratio algorithm, push privacy protection enhanced biometric identification in a multi-scale image representation and cryptographic binding.

Pakistan set to tour Bangladesh after T20 World Cup

Pakistan will tour Bangladesh after the conclusion of the T20 World Cup in October. Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB) chief executive officer (CEO) Nizamuddin Chowdhury confirmed the development. The Pakistan team will reach Dhaka on November 15 and would be playing two Test matches and three T20 internationals in Dhaka and Chattogram in November and December.

“The Pakistan series will happen right after the [T20] World Cup. The cricket operations department is in talks with the Pakistan board to finalise the details. All formats will be included, there will be more ODIs and Tests,” the BCB CEO told the local media on Monday.

This will be Pakistan’s first tour of Bangladesh in six years.