Stanford’s latest breakthrough: logical door calculation is super simple with light quantum!

Today’s many quantum computers are complicated, it is difficult to expand the scale, and it is necessary to run more colder than the interstellar space.These challenges cause researchers to explore the possibility of constructing quantum computers operating using photon (photon).Photons can easily transfer information from one place to another, and photonic quantum computers can operate at room temperature, so this method is very promising.However, although people have successfully created a separate quantum "logic gate", a large number of logical doors are constructed with photons and connect them in a reliable manner to perform complex calculations, or a technical problem.

Recently, Stanford University researchers have proposed a simpler photon quantum computer design, and can be used along the ready-made components. According to a paper published on Journal Optica on November 29, they proposed using lasers to manipulate individual atoms, while individual atoms can modify the state of photons by a phenomenon called "quantum invisible path". The atom can also be reset and reused in many quantum doors, so that there is no need to construct a plurality of different physical doors, which greatly reduces the complexity of constructing light quantum computers.

"Normally, if you want to build this type of quantum computer, you must use thousands of quantum transmitters to keep them perfect, then integrated into a huge photon circuit," application physics doctoral student The first author BEN BEN BARTLETTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTLET, and we only need a few relatively simple components, and the size of the machine does not increase with the size of the quantum program you want to run. " A very simple design requires only several devices: fiber optic cable, beam splitter, a pair of optical switches and optical cavities.

Fortunately, these components already exist and are already commercially used and continuously improved because they are currently used in quantum calculations. For example, telecommunications companies have been committed to improving fiber optic cables and optical switches. "The proposal of this program is based on people’s efforts and investment in people who have made these components. The professor of Stanford Engineering, Shanhui Fan, senior author of the papers. "They are not new components specifically used for quantum computing."

New design

The design of Stanford scientists consists of two main parts: a storage ring and a scattering unit.The function of the memory ring is similar to the memory in the normal computer, which is a fiber loop including a plurality of photons propagated around the loop. Similar to the bit of storage information in the classic computer, in this system, each photon represents a quantum bit. The photons determine the value of the quantum bits around the traveling direction of the storage ring, which may be 0 or 1. Further, since the photon is in the superimposed state, a single photon can simultaneously flow in both directions, which means the value of the combination of 0 and 1.

Figure 1. Photon quantum computer architecture described in this work.

(a) Physical design of the equipment. The photon quantum bit is reversely propagated by the fiber storage ring, and the optical switch can selectively guide the photon interaction with the atomic interaction in the cavity by the scattering unit, and the cavity is coherentiated in the cavity.

(b) The energy structure of the atom: ω1 is resonant to the cavity mold and the photon carrier frequency, and ω0 is far apart.

(c) the description of the BLOCH sphere on the photon quantum bit state {|?, |?} foundation and an operation applying the scattering unit. About rotation

Progressor and beam splitter apply a fixed angle (gray), and rotate

Apply a cavity laser using a lumen laser using a controlled angle θ (pure red). The projection measuring atom transmits this to the photon, but may exceed the target angle θ through π (red dashed line) depends on the measurement result m. ??This operation is a universal original single quantum bit: By combining multiple such operations, and The subsequent rotation angle is adjusted according to the measurement results, and any single quantum ratio can be determined.

The researchers can manipulate photons by directing photons from the memory ring to the scattering unit, where it propagates to cavities containing a single atom. The photon is then interacting with atoms, resulting in "entanglement", which is a quantum, and two particles can even affect each other at a very far distance. Then, the photon returns the storage ring, and then the state of the atom is changed again. Because the atoms and photons are entangled, the operation of the atom will also affect the state of their pairing photons.

Figure 2. Quantum gate sequence corresponding to photons pass through the scattering unit. The projection measurement will be transferred to the photon quantum bits to the rotation of atom quantum bits.

"By measuring the state of the atom, you can transfer the operation to the photon," Ben Bartlett said. "So we only need a controllable atom quantum bit, we can use it as a proxy to indirect all other photon quantum bits.

Because any quantum logic door can be compiled into a series of operations performed on a single particle, in principle, you can use only one controllable "atomic agent quantum bit" to run any size quantum program. In order to run the program, the code is converted to a series of operations, which guides the photon to the scattering unit and manipulate the atom quantum bit. Because you can control atoms and photon interactions, the same device can run many different quantum programs.

Figure 3. Conceptual diagram of the instruction sequence to compile the quantum circuit into the device to be executed on the device.

(a) Universal target quantum circuit.

(b) Decompose the equivalent circuit and the CσZ door of single quantum bit.

(c) The circuit is further decomposed into a series of scattering interactions. This sequence can be assembled into a command set on the classic computer, including six different primitives corresponding to physical actions.

(d) The controllable elements of the quantum device are optical switches, cavity lasers and atomic states.

"For many photon quantum computers, the physical structure passed by photons represents different logic doors, so if you want to change the running program, it usually involves physically reconfiguring hardware," Bartlett said. "And under this new design, you don’t need to change hardware, just need to give a different set of instructions for machines."

Tea packaging design company analysis to replace the advantages and disadvantages of packaging color?

That color makes your product in the mall. After the goods arrive, the buyer will tear open the transport envelope or cardboard box, and they will first see the inside of the goods. Color is part of the brand, which tells what you are suitable for your product, and what buyers can get from it.

When you consider changing the color on the package, you need to consider a lot of things. Changing the color scheme may be your product needs to attract new or more users. It is also possible to destroy everything you have established so far. Even a tiny color change will greatly change the public to your brand.

Now we have to make it simple. Based on the following guidelines, a list of advantages and disadvantages is established to see if you change the packaging color in the future. Think about how long your brand, it is now like, the photo of the photo, competitors’ packaging color, and the reasons behind the change. These two factors will determine if you should take action.

Packaging design can contact @ 元化 design, free design recommendations and various industrial packaging design references.

When can you change the packaging color?

No matter how you choose the original color of the packaging, you need a lot to consider.

Perhaps you have designed a perfect super-target audience packaging with color psychology. Or you ask your friends how they look. Perhaps you have chosen a color scheme that is very important to you. Maybe you just have to choose a color at all.

But since you are considering changing your packaging, please remember that you are not creating new things. You are tampering with something.

First ask why you should consider changing.

Will you launch a new product? Or will you separate a product and other products you sell? Perhaps this product should be able to attract users different from you already established.

Do you want to delete some content? Changes in your industry or arguments related to your brand may prompt you to redesign the way you have a product.

Is your company merged with another company? You need a way to integrate these two brands, and you will not lose your identity.

Does your brand present your initiality? That’s it. Smart entrepreneurs will choose their own products according to their own market.

Are you ready to update? If you have already existed for a long time, your packaging may belong to another era. Sometimes, color and patterns will appear at a certain point in time. Imagine the iconic design of the 90s paper cup. For a certain day, now popular things will be eliminated like Solo Jazz Cup.

Your most important job is to ensure that changes are not random. You are changing the consumer view of your brand, so if you want to turn your packaging into blue, you need to have a better reason to "because I like blue".

Replace the benefits of packaging colors

Can attract new audience.

The color you choose will affect the feelings and ideas of the audience to your product. Watch them as target objects and why they have to do this.

Your product and its pure white packaging, attract consumers in a simple, clean beauty. You want to emphasize your company’s commitment to sustainable development, consider adding green elements in your packaging. This will attract young, pay attention to environmentally friendly consumers, they will pay attention to the ingredients of the products they purchased.

Please explain that you want to attract who join your brand and as accurate as possible. You are young, paying attention to environmentally friendly consumers may also have political progress and like to go outdoors. When you create a new palette of the package, you need to consider some factors now.

You can go to the old meaning.

Color has a high-end product that connotes customers want black packaging. As we said, green is representative, "Hey, we are environmentally friendly! Both people’s things usually use cold tones, while girls’ things are usually packaged with warm colors.

Perhaps at the beginning of your company, you are specializing in women’s products, but now you have products that are suitable for different genders. Your original pink packaging is no longer suitable for your company, so you need to use a more neutral color.

Consider the color change you want to display in the new package. Orange color and other bright colors show an exciting, interesting new role. Add black or purple to the packaging palette, indicating that you have become high-end products.

You will adapt to the current trend.

The color scheme will not exist forever. If you don’t have a very simple palette, it seems that something looks good 10 years ago. Sometimes, this situation will even occur in monochrome design. Imagine mud, avocado 70s, or neon lights in the 1980s, in a specific era, use it to match the color. Think about how to be defined in the 1990s, neutral, blue tones and minimalist designs.

Changing the packaging color is to adapt to the changes in the times and tastes, reshape part of the brand. And don’t use the fashion trend to reuse the package without updating the package. They can, but you don’t know which trend will return, when to return, and how to return. You can’t make your brand becomes dull during this time.

So I want to combine your brand goals and today’s palette. PANTONE annual color is a good start. From a short term, a wide popular color may work, although it will return you to the original position later. If you want to change the color of the packaging to update the brand, then you will go out.

Change the packaging color is unfavorable.

Your product has not been recognized.

If your product is known for its brown box, don’t turn over a blue box overnight.

For consumers, it seems that the change will make people confused, and it will impair your image. Even if your trademark will still appear on the package after you change the packaging, your unique color design can also tell your product existence. You need to do this when your product is close to the competitorship product.

Minimalistic packaging design retains similar colors, but they have lost opportunities for them to stand out in the store.

Your color is too similar to other companies’ colors.

There are too many colors there. Different combinations of nature, color and color, make it easier for you to find your own unique, but create a color palette that is suitable for your brand is too similar to other companies.

After determining the new color, ask yourself two questions:

How do your competitors pack their products?

Is the combination you consider by other companies?

This is not a problem, if another company using the palette is small, in a completely different industry. But if you want a national brand’s iconic color, then choose a different palette so you will not look like imitating them or wants to be this brand. For example, select pink, orange and white palette will make your package

Regeneration brand is very expensive.

Designers spend money research is spending money. The brand is not cheap.

That doesn’t mean that you should not change the color of the package, but you have to consider changes in investment conditions. If your research finds that the color does not affect your profit, don’t change the packaging color during this time. If a large-scale redesign is too high, it is not possible to bring a valuable return, then find a smaller and cheap update method.

Changing the packaging color is always risky, but it should be able to be calculated. Spotify has considered more than 5,000 greens before choosing a perfect hue for its new logo.

As long as the color is changed, it is easy.

Change the package after the merger, which may be the most effective way to keep your identity and integrate it with other identity. When Google acquired Motorola, Motorola changed its own logo to Google’s new positioning.

If you want to maintain a specific market, you want to make your packaging more new, you can consider keeping your color scheme, but only keeps brightness and color. Even a small change can make your picture more bold, soft, or more modern, and will not deviate from the style you have established. Try to use the dark color you have used to see what is different after your packaging appearance is different.

The three major paths boost the city to implement the "double carbon" goal! Artificial intelligence

Recently, the National Industrial Information Safety Development Research Center and Baidu Intelligent Cloud Comnthetic "Artificial Intelligence City" Double Carbon "Target Rendenerability Rendenever." The white paper is based on the "double carbon" strategy, combing the connotation and key areas of the city’s "double carbon" target, analyzing the path of the "double carbon" target of artificial intelligence city and the exploration practice of major cities, and proposed corresponding The initiative suggestion is to provide reference to the maximum effectiveness of manual intelligence, driving urban green low-carbon development.

White paper pointed out that artificial intelligence as a strategic technology that led the new round of technology revolutions and industrial change, accelerating integration with economic and social development, and gradually became an important means to help the city’s "double carbon" goals.

White paper mentioned that artificial intelligence mainly passed the three major paths to help the city to implement the "double carbon" goal: one is to help reduce its own carbon emissions, use deep learning algorithms, open source platforms, etc., reduce artificial intelligence technology itself in the data center, model development Carbon emissions; second, the second is to monitor urban carbon emissions, through intelligent sensors are closely perceived, satellite remote sensing distance observation, using artificial intelligent monitoring platform to integrated urban carbon emissions, can realize tracking, learning, simulation of carbon footprints, etc. Effectively help urban predictions and optimize carbon emissions; third is the key area of ??"double carbon" in the city, promote carbon emission reduction through three dimensions of key industries, urban governance, and public life, through promoting low-carbon circulation and carbon transactions Market construction increases carbon absorption, realizing carbon neutralization.

The white paper also mentioned that many cities have now actively explored in terms of artificial intelligence cities "double carbon" goals, and have achieved certain results, but the future still needs further development: to build digital bases, strengthen new foundations The green low-carbon orientation of the facility; to find the carbon home, play the role of artificial intelligence in "double carbon" target management; to simulate carbon footprint, use artificial intelligent solution to optimize carbon emission path; to empower new scenes, explore practice New model of "double carbon" strategy in the city; to build a "double carbon" platform, promote new technologies such as artificial intelligence to achieve "double carbon" goals.

According to disclosed reports, my country has announced to the world that it strives to achieve carbon-up peaks 2030, and 2060 years ago. The "Double Carbon" goal has fully reflected the responsibility and responsibility of China as an international big country, and it will also force my country’s energy consumption transformation, and the industrial upgrading has brought energy consumption in the form of energy consumption.

Cristiano Ronaldo to make second United debut against Newcastle, says Solskjaer

Cristiano Ronaldo will make his second debut for Manchester United when they host Newcastle United in the Premier League on Saturday (Sept 11), manager Ole Gunnar Solskjaer has said, but he did not confirm if the Portuguese forward would start.

Ronaldo rejoined United from Juventus on a two-year deal and will be looking to add to his 118 goals at the Old Trafford club where he won eight major trophies in six seasons.

Solskjaer said Ronaldo’s return had lifted the mood at United and the 36-year-old, who had “trained all week”, brought with him a “winner’s mentality”.

“He’s been having a good pre-season with Juventus, played with the national team, had a good week with us. He’ll definitely be on the pitch at some point, that’s for sure,” Solskjaer told reporters on Friday.

“We’ve got mutual respect for each other, but he knows I’ve got to make the decisions when to play (him), when not to play. It’s my job to get the best out of him, that comes from communication. He doesn’t need me to tell him what to do.

“Everyone is going to look up to him and he is going to be a leader in this dressing room.”

Ronaldo will don the No. 7 shirt again at United and Solskjaer said its former owner, Uruguay striker Edinson Cavani, had no qualms about handing it to the Portuguese forward.

“Edinson has been remarkable, played really well last season… To pass up his shirt shows the respect he’s got for Cristiano and respect the other way. Two top pros, players and human beings,” Solskjaer said.

United will be without midfielder Fred who is banned after failing to turn up for Brazil’s World Cup qualifiers, which the Norwegian described as a “lose-lose situation”.

“The players want to play but we all know what kind of situation we find ourselves in the last year-and-a-half with the pandemic to limit the spread of the virus,” Solskjaer said.

“We’ve worked really hard to try and find a way – private jets, there are ways of getting them in and out – but all of the decisions have gone against the players who want to play for national teams and clubs but not allowed.

“(I’m) disappointed with the whole thing, common sense might not be common anymore. Fingers crossed, some sense comes into people’s minds.”