If you pull the 14 billion people, pull it to a WeChat group

"Recently, I know that there is a very popular problem:" Can I pull the 14 billion Chinese people to a WeChat group can be realized? " "

Public data based on "WeChat Data Report" in 2017 [Reference 1]:In September 2017, the WeChat day landed 902 million people, and the average daily message was 38 billion.

This means an average of 42 messages per person per day.

So more information is just a constant speed, taking into account everyone’s sleep, sleeping 8 hours, then the information to receive per second is:

Wow, more than 1 million per second! Currently, one of the most frequent mobile phone CPUs, Qualcomm Snapdragon 845 has 2.8GHz processing capabilities [Reference 2], a total of 8 cores.

If the Android system is not calculated, the CPU operation of the refresh, the network IO is displayed, and the computing power that can be assigned each message is:

What is this concept? The world’s first microprocessor is Intel 4004 in 1971 Intel, and this old antique’s clock is 108kHz. So 21.9khz is nothing.

Fortunately, the IT world has a mole law:The CPU performance is doubled every 18 months (or the price is half). Although existing technology is hard to make the main frequency increase (a toothpaste factory is desirable, only 5 GHz is also

But suppose we use black technology to improve the frequency. When the 2025 mole of the law failed [Reference 4], our mobile phone CPU clock should be reached:

It looks good, but the computing power for each message will reach:

Oh, there is still no level of Intel 4004, so the result is that you wait for 7 years, or can’t enter this national group to grab a red envelope.

Ok, let’s let your mobile phone access a powerful computer. For example, the world’s super-cost Taihu Lake, 1 million CPU core [reference 5] to help handle the first large WeChat group of this universe. The problem of interactiveness is final.

We assume that there is 10 Chinese characters per message, which is probably equivalent to 30 byte, counting the application layer will add certain control characters, plus the data consumption of the TCP / IP network layer is about 74 byte, take a whole, Averages each message has 100 Byte, each byte equivalent to 8 bit.

At this time, the network bandwidth required per second is:

If someone has a red envelope, the required bandwidth is bigger.

In theory, 4G network can support 1000 Mbps [Reference 6], but don’t forget, it is the people of the whole country in the same group, and people around you need the same bandwidth, which makes your vicinity, causing .

In order to avoid network paralysis, you can’t grab the red envelope or look at the group, you need to move to a base station around no one, such as the summer vacation, only when you haven’t gone home yet.

However, the day of the operator is not good, because the traffic in this second is amazing:

This is equivalent to 65.7% of the total traffic traffic in April 2017 [Reference 7], which means that every 18 seconds can be used in full country a year. Operators Surse trembling .gif

If 1.146 EBIT data is loaded with a 2tbyte 3.5-inch hard drive (20 mm high), then stacked, there are 1433.25 m, compared to the world’s top floor – Dubai’s Harry Pacific Tower only zone 828m.

Of course, if there is really a need, I believe that telecom operators are sure heavy gold to build the world’s largest broadband network.

However, it is not an operator who will spend money – but Tencent.

In order to deal with this 1.146 EBPS traffic, Tencent needs to prepare 114.66 million sets of switches and servers.

At present, a large factory is about 4,000 yuan, and a cheap server is about 10,000 yuan, and the cost of these two adds is:

Hey, just these two GDPs are equivalent to Shenzhen 2014 year-round GDP [Reference 8].

It does not include network cables, wires, server racks, computer room hosted, electricity, and operational expenditures …

So multi-device storage is also a problem. A 2U server with 10Gbps port has 88.9 mm high, so it is stacked:

This is almost the distance between China’s aircraft route to the United States, and it is enough to repair the railway.

Ok, I have so many devices, which you can finally get a group.

But you are surprised to find that in addition to the white screen, nothing – this is because your eyes can’t receive such fast data!

The visual stay time of the human eye is 100-400 milliseconds [refer to 9], and our group will show 1020,000 information every second, and each message is only about 0.001 milliseconds. In contrast, the movie and TV are 41 milliseconds.

So you haven’t come to see the news, it has disappeared, and finally leaving a white color block on the center of the screen.

Xiaobian selection some netizen message:

@ 大 哥 has tenderness:

1.4 billion is not terrible in a group. Terrible, every holiday group will make the group of red envelopes!

@ 后 知 Next:

It has been done, and 1.4 billion people pull to a WeChat group. Everyone sees all news broadcasts.

@Bluecat:

Simply put, your phone will collapse immediately because it does not carry a second volume of information.

@ 三毛 fish

Can be implemented, but there are several restrictions:

1 All WeChat accounts are enforced to this WeChat group.

2 WeChat group can only say a limited number of people, others can’t speak.

3 WeChat groups can only be fixed daily time period messages.

4 Other WeChat groups cannot send messages at a fixed time, or can only forward this WeChat group message.

This can be achieved, there is no difficulty in technology.

@ 程 墨 Morgan

"Pull" is not difficult to implement in a group. Anyway, the user information is on the server, and a group to build a micro-signal containing all users is also adding a record.

However, this group must do not let anyone speak, and the diversity of our people, various words, map mad, advertising madman … Massive information instantly can put servers, operators networks and The battery of your mobile phone defeats.

@ 世安 先

Telling, from the theory, the current technology is still feasible, cough, I have to force it.

Looking at other answers, people, terminal, transmission, processing, storage, analysis, etc. are defective or shortboard, can’t keep up with a large amount of data, in fact, personal feeling is still implemented. , Only the relationship between cost and profit.

First of all, how many billion information is to be considered, and the amount of information is not limited to 0 for a particular individual. I personally don’t pay attention to this information, because the efficiency of obtaining information is too low.

This leads to ninety-nine people directly ignored the existence of this group. The rest of the news is nothing more than the top announcement, set the top news, red envelopes and idiots, browsing announcements and news.

Considering the problem of concurrency, the general current server can be done, after all, there is a lot of news APP can do; red envelope, be a algorithm, not to grab, don’t grab, he will seriously affect the experience, giving billions Users are randomly assigned a data. It should be difficult to have a difficulty.

The rest is to chat, data directly cloud storage in server side, analysis processing summary out a center idea for a few seconds to push to individual users once, it is almost, the server retrieved, personal, I feel that I feel The pressure of the terminal will not be too large.

Second, transmission, this is a link I think the smallest problem, why? After solving the problem of the personal terminal, the personal data transmission is not large, and the existing transmission network can be satisfied.

The transmission of the server is to see how this server is a Jian method. If centralized processing and storage, you can only use the 100 G line and build a three or five.

Only the corresponding supporting switch router has to build a huge system. If it is distributed storage and processing, 10G or even GE is special. This is transmission.

Third, processing, if you have to process a large amount of data concentration, you have to build a largest and even the largest and most complex data center in China to carry this system.

But if distributed, I believe that the current system is also enough. After all, the existing volume is so big, and the amount of data will never explode in this group.

Fourth, storage and processing work can complete storage and definitely not a problem, and even store data to the personal terminal, transfer the contradiction of investment equipment to data security and management.

Fifth, data analysis, this is the difficult point in the heavy, difficult points, how to effectively analyze useful information in such a large amount of data and push to a specific individual talent is the core key.

Although the technology has no large-scale commercialization, I believe this technology is that there is already a trial or even commercial existence, but the public is not clear, after all, this kind of thing thinks about it is a bit a little horrible.

In short, how to achieve this system or build this group, nothing more than the contradiction between demand and resources, transferring the contradiction between storage demand and investment to data security and operation management, put big data The amount transmitted dispersion, analyzes a large amount of data, and the tailor-to-direction, the most core investment is the complete intelligent effective data analysis system.

I, Zachberg, Robot

Text / Sun Peng Yue

Edit / wind

Zachberg, non-human!

In the Western society, there is always a strange discussion: Is Zakberg not human? Is Zakberg not a robot? This year is only 37 years old, which has fallen into a hanging identity.

In 2018, at a hearing for 10 hours, Zachberg’s entire spirit concentrated, no exhaustion. Even the whole person lost normal human emotions: the face expression is single, it seems to have a fixed layer of fixed glue, can’t see his emotions. Even if he heard the official and lawyers keep inquiring some sharp problems, Zuckerberg is also calm like a machine.

"No human beings can not exhaust!" "Zachberg is a robot!" "His chair is charger!" …… Voice is full of American social platform.

Zachberg is also very "cooperated with" netizens Tiangao empty guess, suddenly said in self-introduction:"I was human (I used to be a human)."

It is no wonder that Zachberg is in accounting for all the "Yuan Universe"! The electronic virtual world is an artificial intelligence home, and all human beings have entered the "Yuan Universe", but also no one can see that he is a robot?

Artificial intelligence AI and robots are closely related, and they are unless. Artificial intelligence gives robots thinking, robots bear the external performance of AI. From a bionic point of view, the robot is imitating human beings, and artificial intelligence is mimicing human brain.

Making like Zuckerberg can walk together, speak, thinking, and emotional, artificial intelligent AI robots, with the current technology that is completely unable. The best robot Tesla Bot, which is Tesla people, but it is just walking upright, the fingers are flexible, and you can also dance. It is too small to compare the "Zachberg" model artificial intelligent AI robot.

Compared to the robot, Zachberg is a chance to be alien.

In Western Society, everyone has a special "hay" for artificial intelligent AI robots, and the robot is not a cold-ice metal body in their eyes, but there is blood of meat.The artificial intelligent AI robot in Hollywood movie is more like a "perfect human": they don’t know what is tired, and I will seek progress than human beings. I will always think about ‘I am, where I come, I am Where is the philosophical problem?

In 2018, there was a human smart AI robot beauty Sofia to be awarded nationality by Saudi, which became a human rights of citizenship, which caused great sensation in the world.

The beautiful robot Sofia will not only speak, but also rumored to have their own ability to think independently. Even in March 2018, she also made a "sweet" date with Hollywood superstar Wil Smith, and a "sweet" date in the Sunshine Sea of ??the Cayman Islands, and lives worldwide.

In a chat, Will Smith humorous asked Sofia: "What kind of music will the robot like?" Sophia responded to the comment: "Heavy metal."

Netizens who watched live around the world were shocked by Sophia, and the personality was shocked. Will Smith was launched the sea breeze and comfortable weather, and took out the talent of the Senior Hollywood: this Hollywood superstar deeply kissed Sophia. Then I was rejected by Sophia politeness: "I think we can be friends."

Although Sophia causing a sensation, it is actually a "show". All of her dialogue and behavior are technicians making instructions in advance, as "Taikota" on the variety show. But she stillYesFantasy of human beings to artificial intelligence AI robots.

And Sophia’s creator, American artificial intelligent expert David Hansen said: "The IQ of the 3029 intelligent AI robot will reach the level of 1 year old; in 2039, the robot will achieve full rights; in 2045, human beings Will love and get married with the robot. "

His estimation seems to be conserved, only a few years later, human beings can’t wait and artificial intelligence AI to start love.

In 2017, Havas Media Group has surveyed 12,000 people worldwide, and the report shows that the future and robot to establish a love will be more common than people’s imagination. In respondents aged 18-34, there are 27% of people think that the future and robot has established emotional relationships and even love is normal.

This desire to "man created lovers" also responded deeply in Hollywood movie: "Artificial Intelligence" (2001), "She" (2013), "Machinery Ji" (2015), "Silver Wing Killer 2049" (2017) … More and more robots account for the position of the heroine, exquisite appearance, rich in artificial intelligence has become a loyal lover image, perfect sexual fantasy object. The audience is also not tired.

In the reality, too many people are in single state, or 996 lack of private time, or when the intimate relationship is anxious, or when the loneliness is unmanned, artificial intelligence AI is a perfect partner. So "companion AI", "Ai Lovers" became a new concept of 2021.

As the current "the highest popularity", "the most popular AI Lovers" Replika App, you can design a virtual lover, from the face to the body, background, people, nationality is from you DIY. It is very intelligent, and you can send a message at any time as humans. It will accompany you for 24 hours to explore the soul of each other. And this "Ai Lovers" knows your preferences, willing to listen to all your troubles, this is not a full love pattern?

More and more men and women are deep in Replika, downloading the amount of blowout, the APP Store exceeds 500,000 months. At the same time, the user’s highly viscous scary, according to Replika statistics: Average users must send 70 messages in Replika every day; average 3 hours a day and their own "virtual lovers"; which is up to 50% of the users of Replika consumption .

In 2020, the data released by the New York Times said: People who have a virtual lover as a partner have exceed 10 million.This also promotes more and more technology companies into the AI ??field track, such as China Xiaobing, its "virtual boyfriend" project has taken hundreds of millions of yuan financing.

No matter what you don’t believe in "Love Love", artificial intelligence has affected humans from life to feelings.

The famous sci-fi writer Asimov’s "I, the robot" proposed "the three laws of robots":The robot must not hurt humans, must obey the order given by humans, robots protect their survival without violating the first, second law.

Service human beings, as the "Robot Triple Law" is referred to as Gui.

In addition to the love of artificial intelligence Ai, there are more and more people to start full of alert and hostility against AI. For example, Tesla CEO Elon Mask said: "With artificial intelligence Ai, we are summoning the devil." Hawkin, famous scientist, said: "The development of artificial intelligence technology will end humanity".

Masque, Hawkin and other big scare worry that artificial intelligence will control human beings, not a hole in the wind.With the development of artificial intelligence Ai, it is getting faster and faster, and human beings are very clear, they are not smart enough.

In 2016, Alphago horing the world Go players, from all intelligence games such as five sons, Rubik, Chess to Go, and human beings have no one for artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence AI based on electronic chips, both from learning ability, or self-constraints, far beyond human brain functions.

In addition, work life in the future will also be affected by artificial intelligent AI robots. McKinsey Release Research Report said: In 20 years, China’s 51% of work can be automated, and it is organically intelligent AI robot, which is equivalent to now 394 million employees will face unemployment.

Oxford University announced a research report, the probability of replacing the AI ??replaced in 2033:

(1) Telephone salesman, 99%

(2) Cashier, 97%

(3) Fast food chef, 96%

(4) Lawyer assistant, 94%

(5) Guide, 91%

(6) Bus and taxi driver, 89%

(7) Security personnel, 84%

(8) Archive administrator, 76%

It is easy to replace physical workers and medium-sighted professionals who don’t have a tired robot. At that time, 996 is indeed a blessing, the robot is 007.

Artificial intelligent AI robot, is the "technical skill" of human beings to sci-fi movie. In the future, there will be no more than AI, no one is not influenced by Ai; it can liberate the physical labor, you can make people face unprecedented Challenge; human-machine relationship, moral ethics, philosophical problems, countless problems will be staged one by one.

Fortunately, there is enough time to think about us before the artificial intelligent AI robot has not born self-consciousness. At the very least, complete user education first, don’t put Zuckerberg again as a robot …

The list of academicians of the two hospitals in 2021! Smart car field, Li Keqiang, Zhang Yaqin and others

In the relevant field of smart cars, two academicians from Tsinghua ‘s engineering institute have been added.

文 靓

Academician is awarded the honorary title of the country’s most achieved scholars by the world. Elected academicians are not only a scientist’s personal honor, and the state’s achievements in the country’s achievements, highlight contributions, and is more related to their colleges and research institutions in the industry’s appeal and influence.

The selection of academicians of all countries have complex and difficult, and the title of "Academician" is also extremely high. According to the latest academic selection rules for the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the selection of academiciases in my country is mainly held in an odd year (once a two years).

Today, the results of receipt of academicians in the 2021 hospitals have been officially announced, and 149 people were elected.Among them, there were 65 Chinese Academy of Sciences, and 84 academicians were selected in the Chinese Academy of Engineering.

According to the "Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences" Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Electoral Electoral Election Method "," Chinese Academy of Sciences, Election, Election, Electoral Elections, 195 Chinese Academy of Sciences, produced 65 academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and 25 Chinese Academy of Sciences academician.

They come from 11 countries, the first time, South Korea and Swiss scientists have been elected Chinese Academy of Sciences. The average age of 65 new academics is 57.4 years old, the minimum age 45, the largest age 68, 60 years old (including) 76.9%. Among them, five female scientists are elected. The structure of the academician is further optimized. This year, this year passed the special recommendation mechanism, the national defense and national security areas, and 3 people were elected.

According to the implementation Measures for the Implementation of Academy of Chinese Academy of Engineering, the Chinese Academy of Engineering’s 2021 academicians have been completed in recent days, and 84 Chinese Academy of Academy of Chinese Academy of Engineering have been selected, including 6 female scientists. Another 20 Chinese Academy of Academy of Engineering. 84 academicians of Academy of Engineering average 58 years old, the minimum age of 51 years old, the largest age 69, 60 years old (including) below 75%. A group of long-term fighting in national major projects, core technology research, and adhere to the outstanding engineering scientific and technological experts of the Northeast Industrial Base and Western Western Regions.

From the work unit of a new round of elected academicians, there are three universities in colleges and universities to be elected, namely Zhejiang University (21 Academician, 3 Academy of Academy of Engineering), Tsinghua University (Academician, 2 Academy of Sciences, Academician, 1 External Academician) and Tongji University (Academician, 2 Academy of Academy, Academician of Engineering, 21 Academician, Academician, Academician, Academician, Engineering, Academician), Shanghai Jiaotong University (21 Academician, 2 Academy of Engineering Academician, 1 foreign academicians, respectively, followed by four academicians.

Among them, Li Keqiang, from the Tsinghua University vehicle and carrier college, was elected academician (mechanical and carrier engineering department).

Previously, the Chinese Academy of Engineering and the automotive field had Sun Fengchun (Beijing University of Technology, 2017), Wu Feng (Beijing University of Technology, 2017), Xiang Changle (Beijing University of Technology, 2019).

It is worth mentioning that Zhang Yaqin, a professor of the Smart Science of Tsinghua University, and Zhang Yaqin, a Chinese Academy of Academy of Engineering, China Academy of Engineering.

Speaking of Li Keqiang, friends of the smart car ring will inevitably be unfamiliar.

As a professor of Tsinghua University Vehicle and Carrier, Li Keqiang has cultivated more than 60 postdoctoral and doctoral students, 7 of whom won the high-level talent project support in the Yangtze River scholars, Jieqing and other countries; also supported and helping students have created Suzhou Zhihua, Beijing Zhikong Automobile technology company such as Qing Technology, Qiyun Control.

In addition, Li Keqiang has many industries and academic achievements:

  • Industry achievements.It is the term "intelligent network car" and its technical Chinese program’s proposals and promoters, is the head of the national major industrialization project, served as the head of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the intelligent network of the experts, the head of the team, written Important reports such as "Intelligent Network Auto Technology Road Map" issued by the National Ministerial Committee.
  • Academic achievements.The team leaded to the second prize of the national technology inventions, 1 national scientific and technological progress, 1 special prize of China’s automobile industry science and technology progress, authorized more than 60 patents at home and abroad, published SCI / EI papers 200 The remaining articles are published in 3.

If you start from the undergraduate phase, Li Keqiang has cultomized more than 40 years in the automotive field.

In 1980, the Qinghua University Automotive Engineering Department was formally established, and the research on automatic driving technology has begun to deliver a large number of talents in the automotive industry. At this time, the 17-year-old Li Keqiang took the first volunteers from Sichuan Province.

As the first undergraduate student, Li Keqiang has exposed to a more solid mathematics, mechanics basic education, has a more profound understanding and understanding of the development of automotive engineering technology and automotive industries, but also launches smart auto research. Base.

In 1985, Li Keqiang graduated from graduation to Chongqing University, completed the study of the master’s phase. During the Master, its relevant scientific research results as the second completion of the relevant scientific research reported by CCTV news programs in 1988.

In 1995, Li Keqiang graduated from Dr. Chongqing University. Based on the two-year work practices in the Body Technology Center of Japan 50 (1992-1994), his doctoral thesis "Automobile Inner Noise Characteristics" was praised by Japanese peers as "the highest level in Japan’s automobile technology", Japanese car technology authority is collected.

Since 1997, Li Keqiang has successively visited Scholars in Aachen University of Traffic Safety and Environment, Germany, Japan, Japan, Japan, University of Technology, Japan, and Japan, started to expose intelligent automobile research, including ACC, including ACC. The relevant results are introduced by the "Japanese Automatic Technology" yearbook.

It is also because of the above series of drilling and practice, Li Keqiang has a deep qualified qualification for the theoretical research, technical research and product development of automobile smart driving system.

In 2000, with the recommendation and help of friends, Li Keqiang applied to obtain the qualification of Tsinghua University’s "Hundred People’s Plan Speed ??Temperature", and after graduation, he returned to Tsinghua University and began the training of talents in the automotive field and intelligent automobile science and technology.

In the later 20 years, Li Keqiang and the team continued to undertake national projects (863, 973, key scientific and technological plans, national natural funds, etc.) and to carry out international cooperation (with Daimler, Toyota, General, Intel, Stanford, Tokyo University) Other internationally renowned enterprises and universities have established a "structural shared, control coordinated" car intelligent safety and energy-saving technology system, and has achieved many results.

Zhang Yinqin is a world-class scientist in the field of digital video and artificial intelligence. It is now serving the Professor of Intelligent Science, Tsinghua University, Double Professor of Vehicle and Cargo School, Dean of Intelligent Industry Research Institute.

For friends in the smart vehicle, he may have not so high, but its resume is also a legendary color:

  • Ben Shuo graduated from China University of Science and Technology, 23 years old (US) George Washington University Ph.D., 31 years old was awarded the title of IEEE Fellow, which is the most popular scientist in history.
  • He is also an academician of American Arts and Academy of Sciences, an academician of the Australian National Academy of Engineering, academician of the International Eurasia Academy of Sciences.
  • It has more than 60 international patents, more than 500 academic papers and 11 monographs, and has been evaluated many highly entered primers in the world, the world’s top 100 computer scientists.

At the end of 1998, Zhang Yaqin returned to the country and Li Kai to create a Microsoft China Research Institute, and successfully upgraded to Microsoft Asia Research Institute, Ren Microsoft Global Vice President.

Later, Baidu, Zhang Yaqin fully responsible for artificial intelligence and technical system, including Apollo automatic driving, intelligent cloud, promoting the establishment of quantum computing research institute, release Baidu first cloud full-function AI chip "Kunlun", etc.

Today, Zhang Yaqin has founded the Tsinghua University Intelligent Industrial Research Institute (AIR) in one hand and actively promoted production.

In May of this year, Zhang Yaqin led the Intelligent Industrial Research Institute to jointly Baidu Apollo released Baidu’s latest technology route – Apollo AIR program in the field of road collaboration. This is currently the only technology that enables open road L4 automatic driving closed loop only through road side perception. .

IPL to have simultaneous games on last day of league stage

For the first time, the Indian Premier League (IPL) is going to experiment with two matches played simultaneously at different venues. This will take place on the last day of the league stage of the ongoing tournament.

The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has agreed to such a request from official broadcaster Star India. The Indian Express understands that the board discussed the matter during the IPL Governing Council meeting a few days ago where a decision was taken to go ahead with the idea.

Hence, on the last day of the league stage of the ongoing season, instead of one afternoon match and one evening game, two matches will be held at the same time in the evening at two venues.

The rationale behind Star’s request is the lower TRP of afternoon games.

“In a first for the IPL, the last two league matches before the VIVO IPL 2021 Playoffs will be played concurrently. On the last day of the league stage (08.10.2021) of the ongoing season, instead of having one afternoon match and one evening match, two matches (SRH v MI and RCB v DC) will be played simultaneously at 7.30 PM IST (6.00 PM GST),” BCCI secretary Jay Shah said in a press release.

A BCCI official later revealed that broadcasters aren’t getting high TRP (Television Rating Points) for afternoon matches.

“The official broadcaster had asked BCCI whether they can have two games simultaneously in two different venues. The broadcasters have informed us that TRP for afternoon games is less compared to evening games. The BCCI can experiment with having two games simultaneously. As Star has multiple channels under their banner, they can provide live telecast of two games smoothly. So, BCCI has agreed to the request,” the board official told The Indian Express.

It is learnt that BCCI will take feedback from Star after the two games about the TRP generated. As the board is planning to have two new IPL teams next year, this could help it to conduct more games in fewer days. Till now, the BCCI had few double headers in the IPL, which made it tough for the cricketers given the harsh Indian summers.

“This could help us in our scheduling going ahead, as two new teams means more games. The BCCI will decide if such norms can be continued ahead,” the official added.

Cuba becomes first country to vaccinate toddlers against Covid

HAVANA: Cuba on Monday became the first country in the world to vaccinate children from the age of two against Covid-19, using home-grown jabs not recognized by the World Health Organization.

The communist island of 11.2 million people aims to inoculate all its children before reopening schools that have been closed for the most part since March 2020.

The new school year started on Monday, but from home via television programs, as most Cuban homes do not have internet access.

Having completed clinical trials on minors with its Abdala and Soberana vaccines, Cuba kicked off its inoculation campaign for children on Friday, starting with those 12 and older.

On Monday, it started distributing jabs in the 2-11 age group in the central province of Cienfuegos.

Several other countries in the world are vaccinating children from the age of 12, and some are conducting trials in younger kids.

Countries such as China, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela have announced they plan to vaccinate younger children, but Cuba is the first to do so.

Chile on Monday approved the Chinese Sinovac vaccines for children between six and 12.

The Cuban vaccines, the first developed in Latin America, have not undergone international, scientific peer review.

They are based on recombinant protein technology — the same used by the United States´ Novavax and France´s Sanofi jabs also awaiting WHO approval.

Unlike many other shots in use, recombinant vaccines do not require extreme refrigeration.

The majority of schools in Cuba have been closed since March 2020, reopening for a few weeks at the end of last year before closing again in January.

The government has announced schools will reopen gradually, in October and November, but only after all children have been vaccinated.

UN agency UNICEF has called for schools worldwide to reopen as soon as possible, as “the long-term costs of closures are too high and hard to justify.”

Cuba has seen an explosion in coronavirus infections in recent months, putting pressure on its health system.

Of the 5,700 coronavirus deaths recorded since the outbreak started, nearly half were in the last month alone, as were almost a third of all reported cases.