Application of low temperature micro-solid nitrogen particles and its semiconductor wafer cleaning technology


In recent years, the high-functional high functionality of micrometer low-temperature solid particulates has been concerned in the field of ultra-high thermal flux cooling technology applied to high heat emission devices. In order to effectively utilize such low-temperature solid particles in advanced nanotechnology, our laboratory has developed a new physical semiconductor cleaning method, which uses a low temperature spray.

In the present method, in order to clarify the detailed mechanism of microscopic (SN2) particle behavior, a combined calculation of fluid kinetic analysis is carried out to clarify the micro-low temperature monolithic particulate heat transfer mechanism of the traditional measurement. For the expression of the control equation, the thermodynamic behavior of a single micro SN2 particle phase change is controlled by the Navier Stokes equation, the continuity equation, and the energy equation. The decisive feature of this phenomenon is to occur in strong evaporation (and later condensation) in the SN2 particles and the surrounding air phase interface. In addition to these thermodynamic analysis, the application of micro SN2 spray in semiconductor wafer cleaning technology was also studied. The SN2 particles impact silicon wafer heating machinery removal cleaning characteristics were clarified from the experimental and numerical values. Effects of ultra-high thermal flux cooling on removal properties of the heat shrink resist of organic materials were studied. In addition, the effect of ultrasonic atomizing micro-solid nitrogen on wafer ultra-clean performance.


For wafer samples used in the process, the peeling properties of the polysilicon / gate silicon oxide / silicon substrate coated with the positive KrF photoresist were examined. These wafers are manufactured as follows. First, a hot oxidation of 8 inch P-type silicon substrates and a 6-nanometer thick gate oxide layer is deposited on the substrate. A 150 nm thick polysilicon layer was deposited on the gate oxide using LPCVD (low pressure chemical vapor deposition). The HMDS (hexamethylene silicon) layer is applied to the surface of the polysilicon to help the photoresist adhere to the polysilicon, and then the rotary coater is used to form 500 nm thick photoresist layers on the HMDS layer. . Photoresist is patterned using 193 nm KrF excitation light. The door length is 0.34m, and the door width is 10m. Polysilicon is electrocardiated by an inductive coupled plasma etch system (silicon etch system, application material company) to form bromide / oxygen chemical etching into a pattern. These wafers are cut into a rectangular sheet of approximately 5 mm × 5 mm.

Results and discussion

Figure 7 shows the calculation results of the non-organized internal stress distribution of the SN2 particles and the deformed resist. It can be seen that the interaction between the SN2 particles and the resist is reasonably simulated. The size of the stress in the wafer resist increases as the plastic deformation increases. The pressure between the SN2 particles and the pressure of the wafer resist increases with the impact of the SN2 particles. It may be possible to predict the collision of SN2 particles and plastic deformation, and the collision causes the shear deformation of the resist – polysilicon interface. As a result, the resist removal performance is improved by the scratching effect of the micro-recess in the narrow recess between the wiring pattern.

Figure 7 Replace the calculation of the stress distribution of the reaction particles and deformation resists

Figure 8 shows an experimental result (scanning electron microscopy) using micro SN2 spray produced by the Lavar nozzle method (scanning electron microscopy). The resist can be effectively removed, and the main contaminants on the surface of the wafer are also successfully removed. This improved resist removal cleaning performance is a result of the removal of the motion resist removal of the very fine (nanoscale diameter dimension) SN2 particles. At the current stage of technological development, a given Sn2 particle digital density condition is a small amount of residual resist in the concave portion of the wiring pattern. However, we have successfully developed a single component of a single component that does not use gaseous helium.

Figure 8 Remove the experimental result of the photoresist with a micro SN2 spray (scanning electron microscope image)

Values ??and experiments have found that due to the ultra-high heat transfer characteristics, the mixed interaction of the fluid mechanical force and the thermal mechanical force contributes to the resist removal – the cleaning process. In particular, the effect of ultra-high thermal flux cooling on the resistance properties of thermal shrinkage removing resistance of the resist material was found, and the effect of ultrasonic atomized micro Sn2 particles on the ultra-clean performance of the semiconductor wafer was newly discovered.


When the micro-solid nitrogen particles are used in the heated substrate together with the refrigerant, the ultra-high cooling heat flux level is achieved during operation, and therefore, the cooling performance is better than conventional liquid spray cooling. Since the micro SN2 cooling has the advantage of avoiding direct contact and latent heat transfer of the membrane boiling state, the ultra-short time scale heat transfer in the thin boundary layer is more likely to be in the liquid spray.

Numerical and experiments have found that the impact and ultra-high heat transfer characteristics of the micro-solid particles contribute to the resist removal – the cleaning process. An important discovery is that the impact of ultra-high thermal flux cooling plays an important role in removal properties related to thermal contraction of resistant materials.

The results obtained are of great significance in the field of low temperature cooling technology of advanced high heat emission devices, but will also help nano-devices engineering, which is closely related to semiconductor wafer cleaning technology.

I, Zachberg, Robot

Text / Sun Peng Yue

Edit / wind

Zachberg, non-human!

In the Western society, there is always a strange discussion: Is Zakberg not human? Is Zakberg not a robot? This year is only 37 years old, which has fallen into a hanging identity.

In 2018, at a hearing for 10 hours, Zachberg’s entire spirit concentrated, no exhaustion. Even the whole person lost normal human emotions: the face expression is single, it seems to have a fixed layer of fixed glue, can’t see his emotions. Even if he heard the official and lawyers keep inquiring some sharp problems, Zuckerberg is also calm like a machine.

"No human beings can not exhaust!" "Zachberg is a robot!" "His chair is charger!" …… Voice is full of American social platform.

Zachberg is also very "cooperated with" netizens Tiangao empty guess, suddenly said in self-introduction:"I was human (I used to be a human)."

It is no wonder that Zachberg is in accounting for all the "Yuan Universe"! The electronic virtual world is an artificial intelligence home, and all human beings have entered the "Yuan Universe", but also no one can see that he is a robot?

Artificial intelligence AI and robots are closely related, and they are unless. Artificial intelligence gives robots thinking, robots bear the external performance of AI. From a bionic point of view, the robot is imitating human beings, and artificial intelligence is mimicing human brain.

Making like Zuckerberg can walk together, speak, thinking, and emotional, artificial intelligent AI robots, with the current technology that is completely unable. The best robot Tesla Bot, which is Tesla people, but it is just walking upright, the fingers are flexible, and you can also dance. It is too small to compare the "Zachberg" model artificial intelligent AI robot.

Compared to the robot, Zachberg is a chance to be alien.

In Western Society, everyone has a special "hay" for artificial intelligent AI robots, and the robot is not a cold-ice metal body in their eyes, but there is blood of meat.The artificial intelligent AI robot in Hollywood movie is more like a "perfect human": they don’t know what is tired, and I will seek progress than human beings. I will always think about ‘I am, where I come, I am Where is the philosophical problem?

In 2018, there was a human smart AI robot beauty Sofia to be awarded nationality by Saudi, which became a human rights of citizenship, which caused great sensation in the world.

The beautiful robot Sofia will not only speak, but also rumored to have their own ability to think independently. Even in March 2018, she also made a "sweet" date with Hollywood superstar Wil Smith, and a "sweet" date in the Sunshine Sea of ??the Cayman Islands, and lives worldwide.

In a chat, Will Smith humorous asked Sofia: "What kind of music will the robot like?" Sophia responded to the comment: "Heavy metal."

Netizens who watched live around the world were shocked by Sophia, and the personality was shocked. Will Smith was launched the sea breeze and comfortable weather, and took out the talent of the Senior Hollywood: this Hollywood superstar deeply kissed Sophia. Then I was rejected by Sophia politeness: "I think we can be friends."

Although Sophia causing a sensation, it is actually a "show". All of her dialogue and behavior are technicians making instructions in advance, as "Taikota" on the variety show. But she stillYesFantasy of human beings to artificial intelligence AI robots.

And Sophia’s creator, American artificial intelligent expert David Hansen said: "The IQ of the 3029 intelligent AI robot will reach the level of 1 year old; in 2039, the robot will achieve full rights; in 2045, human beings Will love and get married with the robot. "

His estimation seems to be conserved, only a few years later, human beings can’t wait and artificial intelligence AI to start love.

In 2017, Havas Media Group has surveyed 12,000 people worldwide, and the report shows that the future and robot to establish a love will be more common than people’s imagination. In respondents aged 18-34, there are 27% of people think that the future and robot has established emotional relationships and even love is normal.

This desire to "man created lovers" also responded deeply in Hollywood movie: "Artificial Intelligence" (2001), "She" (2013), "Machinery Ji" (2015), "Silver Wing Killer 2049" (2017) … More and more robots account for the position of the heroine, exquisite appearance, rich in artificial intelligence has become a loyal lover image, perfect sexual fantasy object. The audience is also not tired.

In the reality, too many people are in single state, or 996 lack of private time, or when the intimate relationship is anxious, or when the loneliness is unmanned, artificial intelligence AI is a perfect partner. So "companion AI", "Ai Lovers" became a new concept of 2021.

As the current "the highest popularity", "the most popular AI Lovers" Replika App, you can design a virtual lover, from the face to the body, background, people, nationality is from you DIY. It is very intelligent, and you can send a message at any time as humans. It will accompany you for 24 hours to explore the soul of each other. And this "Ai Lovers" knows your preferences, willing to listen to all your troubles, this is not a full love pattern?

More and more men and women are deep in Replika, downloading the amount of blowout, the APP Store exceeds 500,000 months. At the same time, the user’s highly viscous scary, according to Replika statistics: Average users must send 70 messages in Replika every day; average 3 hours a day and their own "virtual lovers"; which is up to 50% of the users of Replika consumption .

In 2020, the data released by the New York Times said: People who have a virtual lover as a partner have exceed 10 million.This also promotes more and more technology companies into the AI ??field track, such as China Xiaobing, its "virtual boyfriend" project has taken hundreds of millions of yuan financing.

No matter what you don’t believe in "Love Love", artificial intelligence has affected humans from life to feelings.

The famous sci-fi writer Asimov’s "I, the robot" proposed "the three laws of robots":The robot must not hurt humans, must obey the order given by humans, robots protect their survival without violating the first, second law.

Service human beings, as the "Robot Triple Law" is referred to as Gui.

In addition to the love of artificial intelligence Ai, there are more and more people to start full of alert and hostility against AI. For example, Tesla CEO Elon Mask said: "With artificial intelligence Ai, we are summoning the devil." Hawkin, famous scientist, said: "The development of artificial intelligence technology will end humanity".

Masque, Hawkin and other big scare worry that artificial intelligence will control human beings, not a hole in the wind.With the development of artificial intelligence Ai, it is getting faster and faster, and human beings are very clear, they are not smart enough.

In 2016, Alphago horing the world Go players, from all intelligence games such as five sons, Rubik, Chess to Go, and human beings have no one for artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence AI based on electronic chips, both from learning ability, or self-constraints, far beyond human brain functions.

In addition, work life in the future will also be affected by artificial intelligent AI robots. McKinsey Release Research Report said: In 20 years, China’s 51% of work can be automated, and it is organically intelligent AI robot, which is equivalent to now 394 million employees will face unemployment.

Oxford University announced a research report, the probability of replacing the AI ??replaced in 2033:

(1) Telephone salesman, 99%

(2) Cashier, 97%

(3) Fast food chef, 96%

(4) Lawyer assistant, 94%

(5) Guide, 91%

(6) Bus and taxi driver, 89%

(7) Security personnel, 84%

(8) Archive administrator, 76%

It is easy to replace physical workers and medium-sighted professionals who don’t have a tired robot. At that time, 996 is indeed a blessing, the robot is 007.

Artificial intelligent AI robot, is the "technical skill" of human beings to sci-fi movie. In the future, there will be no more than AI, no one is not influenced by Ai; it can liberate the physical labor, you can make people face unprecedented Challenge; human-machine relationship, moral ethics, philosophical problems, countless problems will be staged one by one.

Fortunately, there is enough time to think about us before the artificial intelligent AI robot has not born self-consciousness. At the very least, complete user education first, don’t put Zuckerberg again as a robot …

The three major paths boost the city to implement the "double carbon" goal! Artificial intelligence

Recently, the National Industrial Information Safety Development Research Center and Baidu Intelligent Cloud Comnthetic "Artificial Intelligence City" Double Carbon "Target Rendenerability Rendenever." The white paper is based on the "double carbon" strategy, combing the connotation and key areas of the city’s "double carbon" target, analyzing the path of the "double carbon" target of artificial intelligence city and the exploration practice of major cities, and proposed corresponding The initiative suggestion is to provide reference to the maximum effectiveness of manual intelligence, driving urban green low-carbon development.

White paper pointed out that artificial intelligence as a strategic technology that led the new round of technology revolutions and industrial change, accelerating integration with economic and social development, and gradually became an important means to help the city’s "double carbon" goals.

White paper mentioned that artificial intelligence mainly passed the three major paths to help the city to implement the "double carbon" goal: one is to help reduce its own carbon emissions, use deep learning algorithms, open source platforms, etc., reduce artificial intelligence technology itself in the data center, model development Carbon emissions; second, the second is to monitor urban carbon emissions, through intelligent sensors are closely perceived, satellite remote sensing distance observation, using artificial intelligent monitoring platform to integrated urban carbon emissions, can realize tracking, learning, simulation of carbon footprints, etc. Effectively help urban predictions and optimize carbon emissions; third is the key area of ??"double carbon" in the city, promote carbon emission reduction through three dimensions of key industries, urban governance, and public life, through promoting low-carbon circulation and carbon transactions Market construction increases carbon absorption, realizing carbon neutralization.

The white paper also mentioned that many cities have now actively explored in terms of artificial intelligence cities "double carbon" goals, and have achieved certain results, but the future still needs further development: to build digital bases, strengthen new foundations The green low-carbon orientation of the facility; to find the carbon home, play the role of artificial intelligence in "double carbon" target management; to simulate carbon footprint, use artificial intelligent solution to optimize carbon emission path; to empower new scenes, explore practice New model of "double carbon" strategy in the city; to build a "double carbon" platform, promote new technologies such as artificial intelligence to achieve "double carbon" goals.

According to disclosed reports, my country has announced to the world that it strives to achieve carbon-up peaks 2030, and 2060 years ago. The "Double Carbon" goal has fully reflected the responsibility and responsibility of China as an international big country, and it will also force my country’s energy consumption transformation, and the industrial upgrading has brought energy consumption in the form of energy consumption.

Karan Mehra says he has not seen son Kavish for more than 100 days: ‘It has been a disturbing, painful time’

Television actors Karan Mehra and Nisha Rawal’s separation became an ugly mess after she accused him of infidelity and alleged domestic violence. Karan insisted that she had orchestrated the entire incident, in order to force him into providing alimony. Three months later, Karan says that he is ‘still fighting the battle’ and it has been a particularly difficult time for him as he is not allowed to see their son Kavish.

Speaking to Hindustan Times, the former Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai actor said, “It has been more than three months and I am fighting the battle. The matter is subjudice so I don’t want to talk much about it. I have not seen Kavish since more than 100 days, not able to enter my home or take my belongings. It has been an emotional, disturbing and painful time for all of us. We are fighting it as a family.”

He added that everyone in his family, including his parents have been falsely framed. “It is not right to put my parents through all this, especially when my dad is a heart patient. It is quite disturbing. The proceedings, the process and the fight are not easy. I am out of my house while she and her brother are in the house, aaram se.” Karan Mehra mentioned that he is busy shooting for a Punjabi show, which is keeping him busy and distracted.

How India and Germany can work together to tackle climate change

For over a year now, India, Germany and the entire world have been in crisis mode. The Covid-19 pandemic has left no country untouched. It is safe to say, we will either beat Covid-19 worldwide or not at all.

The virus briefly drew attention away from another crisis — climate change and its impact. In South Asia and Europe, we have become used to extremely hot weather, flooding, dramatic depletion of groundwater tables and drought. Climate change could even stop the world from achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

We have agreed that global warming must be kept to well under 2 degrees Celsius and, if possible, to 1.5 degrees. Back in December 2015, 195 countries joined in Paris to sign an ambitious climate agreement. Each of those countries must deliver on their responsibilities. Climate change, too, is a crisis that can only be beaten worldwide or not at all.

India is one of few countries that looks set to deliver on the national goals it set itself as part of the Paris agreement. Compared to other G20 countries, its per capita emissions are very low.

At the same time, India must bear in mind the development interests of its large population. We firmly believe that sustainable growth and climate action go hand in hand. India now has the opportunity to make its massive investments in infrastructure over the next 15 years climate-smart and climate-resilient. This will also protect the interests of the most vulnerable sections of the population. Without India, the world will not be able to fight climate change. Without India, we cannot achieve the SDGs. That means that India has a leading international role to play in the global race to sustainability.

The EU has adopted an ambitious Green Deal to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and to decouple economic growth from consumption of natural resources. Germany recently adopted laws on reducing greenhouse gases more quickly, achieving climate neutrality by 2045 and stopping the use of coal for electricity production by 2038.

As Deputy Ministers in Germany’s Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, we come to India with the greatest confidence in the country’s political process and to learn from India. We see our responsibility as an industrialised country to both forge ahead with greening our own economy and also support other countries.

In 2015, India’s Prime Minister and Germany’s Federal Chancellor agreed to further strengthen the two countries’ strategic partnership. On this basis, Germany and India have succeeded in building up a cooperation portfolio worth almost 12 billion euros. Already, nine out of 10 measures support climate goals and SDGs together.

Indo-German development cooperation focuses on three areas: The transition to renewable energies, sustainable urban development and sustainable management of natural resources. As a pioneer of energy transition, Germany is offering knowledge, technology transfer and financial solutions. Over half the Indian population will live in cities by 2050. Our cooperation efforts support Indian policies to find sustainable solutions for this growth challenge in the face of limited urban resources and climate change.

The pandemic has shown global supply chains are vulnerable. Yet, when it comes to agriculture and natural resources, there are smart solutions that are being tested in India and Germany for more self-reliance, including agro-ecological approaches and sustainable management of forests, soils and water. Experience in India has shown that these methods also boost incomes for the local population and make them less dependent on expensive fertilisers, pesticides and seed. We look forward to deepening the work in this area. This is related to international health policies. Through a One Health approach, which looks at the close connections between human and animal health within their shared environment, we want to help tackle the challenges posed by population growth, increased mobility, shrinking habitats, industrialised farming and intensive animal husbandry.

Ultimately, we believe that global climate goals and the SDGs can only be achieved through cooperation between governments, the private sector, science, and civil society. India and Germany have innovative economies and many highly-trained people. We should harness that potential even more.