Stanford’s latest breakthrough: logical door calculation is super simple with light quantum!

Today’s many quantum computers are complicated, it is difficult to expand the scale, and it is necessary to run more colder than the interstellar space.These challenges cause researchers to explore the possibility of constructing quantum computers operating using photon (photon).Photons can easily transfer information from one place to another, and photonic quantum computers can operate at room temperature, so this method is very promising.However, although people have successfully created a separate quantum "logic gate", a large number of logical doors are constructed with photons and connect them in a reliable manner to perform complex calculations, or a technical problem.

Recently, Stanford University researchers have proposed a simpler photon quantum computer design, and can be used along the ready-made components. According to a paper published on Journal Optica on November 29, they proposed using lasers to manipulate individual atoms, while individual atoms can modify the state of photons by a phenomenon called "quantum invisible path". The atom can also be reset and reused in many quantum doors, so that there is no need to construct a plurality of different physical doors, which greatly reduces the complexity of constructing light quantum computers.

"Normally, if you want to build this type of quantum computer, you must use thousands of quantum transmitters to keep them perfect, then integrated into a huge photon circuit," application physics doctoral student The first author BEN BEN BARTLETTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTLET, and we only need a few relatively simple components, and the size of the machine does not increase with the size of the quantum program you want to run. " A very simple design requires only several devices: fiber optic cable, beam splitter, a pair of optical switches and optical cavities.

Fortunately, these components already exist and are already commercially used and continuously improved because they are currently used in quantum calculations. For example, telecommunications companies have been committed to improving fiber optic cables and optical switches. "The proposal of this program is based on people’s efforts and investment in people who have made these components. The professor of Stanford Engineering, Shanhui Fan, senior author of the papers. "They are not new components specifically used for quantum computing."

New design

The design of Stanford scientists consists of two main parts: a storage ring and a scattering unit.The function of the memory ring is similar to the memory in the normal computer, which is a fiber loop including a plurality of photons propagated around the loop. Similar to the bit of storage information in the classic computer, in this system, each photon represents a quantum bit. The photons determine the value of the quantum bits around the traveling direction of the storage ring, which may be 0 or 1. Further, since the photon is in the superimposed state, a single photon can simultaneously flow in both directions, which means the value of the combination of 0 and 1.

Figure 1. Photon quantum computer architecture described in this work.

(a) Physical design of the equipment. The photon quantum bit is reversely propagated by the fiber storage ring, and the optical switch can selectively guide the photon interaction with the atomic interaction in the cavity by the scattering unit, and the cavity is coherentiated in the cavity.

(b) The energy structure of the atom: ω1 is resonant to the cavity mold and the photon carrier frequency, and ω0 is far apart.

(c) the description of the BLOCH sphere on the photon quantum bit state {|?, |?} foundation and an operation applying the scattering unit. About rotation

Progressor and beam splitter apply a fixed angle (gray), and rotate

Apply a cavity laser using a lumen laser using a controlled angle θ (pure red). The projection measuring atom transmits this to the photon, but may exceed the target angle θ through π (red dashed line) depends on the measurement result m. ??This operation is a universal original single quantum bit: By combining multiple such operations, and The subsequent rotation angle is adjusted according to the measurement results, and any single quantum ratio can be determined.

The researchers can manipulate photons by directing photons from the memory ring to the scattering unit, where it propagates to cavities containing a single atom. The photon is then interacting with atoms, resulting in "entanglement", which is a quantum, and two particles can even affect each other at a very far distance. Then, the photon returns the storage ring, and then the state of the atom is changed again. Because the atoms and photons are entangled, the operation of the atom will also affect the state of their pairing photons.

Figure 2. Quantum gate sequence corresponding to photons pass through the scattering unit. The projection measurement will be transferred to the photon quantum bits to the rotation of atom quantum bits.

"By measuring the state of the atom, you can transfer the operation to the photon," Ben Bartlett said. "So we only need a controllable atom quantum bit, we can use it as a proxy to indirect all other photon quantum bits.

Because any quantum logic door can be compiled into a series of operations performed on a single particle, in principle, you can use only one controllable "atomic agent quantum bit" to run any size quantum program. In order to run the program, the code is converted to a series of operations, which guides the photon to the scattering unit and manipulate the atom quantum bit. Because you can control atoms and photon interactions, the same device can run many different quantum programs.

Figure 3. Conceptual diagram of the instruction sequence to compile the quantum circuit into the device to be executed on the device.

(a) Universal target quantum circuit.

(b) Decompose the equivalent circuit and the CσZ door of single quantum bit.

(c) The circuit is further decomposed into a series of scattering interactions. This sequence can be assembled into a command set on the classic computer, including six different primitives corresponding to physical actions.

(d) The controllable elements of the quantum device are optical switches, cavity lasers and atomic states.

"For many photon quantum computers, the physical structure passed by photons represents different logic doors, so if you want to change the running program, it usually involves physically reconfiguring hardware," Bartlett said. "And under this new design, you don’t need to change hardware, just need to give a different set of instructions for machines."

The youngest motivation of the Congress of the Congress of the Dialogue: It is discovered by AI to find the physics law, and the Nature Subscription

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Scientific exploration, perhaps the ai field, one of the most "star sea" imagination.

Mysterious life password, everywhere, the power of power, chaotic molecular sports … Scientists go to success, explore simple, elegant, harmonious mathematical equations to describe the general laws of the world.

From the viewing cloud distinctive objects to the numerical climate model, from Newton, Einstein, a relatively discovered law, and leaving a concentrate in the process of human development. The world is so wide, there are too many mystery, not being explored and defined by human beings.

When AI grows into a key cutter that digs massive data information, it has opened a new door to explore the scientific issue.

The world’s top AI institutions are put into action, DeepMind uses AI to crack protein folding problems, Huawei cloud training tray ancient drug molecular model to promote AI new drug research, NVIDIA announced to create "digital twin global" to study climate change …

These decoded unknown explorations are also the direction in which Sun Hao is studying.

Ministry of Renmin University of China, Minister of Artificial Intelligence, Implicate Associate Professor, Sumao

Sun Hao is 33 years old. At present, Sun Hao is currently the youngest long-term associate professor and motion of Renmin University of China.

In October This year, Sun Hao team’s paper "PHYSICS-INFORMED Learning Of Governing Equation" is published in the International Academic Journal Nature Communications.

After a few years, he returned to the motherland, he wanted to use AI to unveiled more potential laws, find more reliable theoretical support for physics, chemistry, biological, engineering applications.

Sun Hao team published on the International Academic Journal Nature Communications in October this year

First, from"Architect"arrive"Equation detective"

Sun Hao is not a "AI + Science Exploration" direction.

His undergraduate studied in the civil engineering major of Hehai University. After graduating, he took full scholarship to the University of Columbia to study the master’s degree and doctorate of Engineering Mechanics. Subsequently, he was doing a Ph.D., 29 years old, and under 30 years old. Elite "scientific list, 31 years old is elected" Top Ten Chinese Outstanding Youth ".

During the study period, Sun Hao is the kind of play, and the students who will not die, I really like to swim. When doing a PhD, Sun Hao insisted on swimming every afternoon, and often playing table tennis, soothing to relieve stress, restart the brain.

Before and after 2015, Sun Hao’s research background is mechanics, doing some applications such as intelligent buildings, smart urban intelligent infrastructure, such as sensor monitoring and warning buildings, bridges and other building structures. When making software analysis, he began to contact artificial intelligence and machine learning methods for resolving relevant data processing issues.

In this process, Sun Hao found that data did not imagine so much, information is not so sufficient, if only data is processed, the previous basic mechanics law is not enough to solve some dynamic problems of the building.

At first, it was interested in making it. Later, as the study gradually extends, Sun Hao realized that this is not only mechanically related issues, weather forecasts, other systems in physical worlds such as weather forecasts, there are many other systems in physical worlds such as cell movement. There are similar problems.

So, is it possible to make a set of AI theory, it is possible to find a specific scientific law from the data, form a new theory, and can also take into account the basic theory we have learned before?

With this as the starting point, Sun Hao’s research direction began to transition to "AI + Science Exploration".

He believes: "The future scientific exploration should not rely on people. Newton wrote the second law of Newton, Cople wrote the law of Copler, they did have any people, it is a genius, it is a giant."

The unknown problem in the physical world is so vast, so far, human beings only solve the hoss of the iceberg. If there is still only relying on people’s power, how many geniuses do you still have?

"So we are thinking, with this, it is better to let Ai play genius, and AI will help us find this law and put this formula." Sun Hao said.

AI explores nonlinear partial differential equations for describing the complex reaction diffusion process of biochemical systems

Second, return to the motherland, use artificial intelligence to explore the scientific law

Since 2017, Sun Hao successfully passed the University of Pisberg, the Northeastern University of Northeastern University, and the part-time researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sun Hao chose to return to the motherland in this summer.

"The domestic scientific research environment has become much better than before." Sun Hao mentioned the significance of domestic research and support in policies and funds, and in the long run, he has more confident in China’s scientific research.

After taught by Professor Wen Ji, Professor Wen Jirong, he immediately decided to join a young Ai Academy, just created two years – China Renmin University of China.

Gao Hui artificial intelligent building

The Gao Hui Artificial Intelligence College was established on April 22, 2019. It is the second-level college, the founder of the Renmin University of China, and the founder of the Gao Yu Capital and CEO Zhang Lei’s support construction. The Chinese Academy of Engineering Pan Yunhe is the director of the Academic Committee, Professor Tejong Executive Dean, the teacher sequence implements "long hire".

"I feel that the teacher is very pleasant leader. I think I should join this place." Sun Hao believes that an excellent leader has a guiding role in the growth of young people. Whether it is anchoring the direction of the AI ??change, it is still necessary to have a feeling.

Apart fromleadershipIn addition, Sun Hao also is optimistic about the other three advantages of the Gaozheng Artificial Intelligence College:Vision, system, culture.

In his opinion, the Gao Hui Artificial Intelligence Academy has the development of the AI ??development and took the lead in proposing a temperature AI. Ai is not only a tool, it should be deeply associated with people, combined with various disciplines such as law, communication, economics, social governance, to solve extensive issues in the real world.

Can a place to attract passion, a soft young scholar, a system is critical, and the stereotype will give innovation to form a barrier, and the Gao Hui Artificial Intelligence Academy encourages the teacher to freely explore the research direction and does not set the boundary of the roll box.

In the next two months, Sun Hao felt that the culture of the college is very inclusive. The college supports professors to choose their own research direction. They have encouraged attitudes in internal and external cooperation. The research funds are also more abundant. If you want to do a research on future development, the college will specially apply for a part of the funds to specifically support This direction.

Current Sun HaoArtificial Intelligence Mathematical Basis and Improving CrossContains interpretative deep learning, knowledge characterization and reasoning, physical driver depth learning, symbol strengthening learning and reasoning, data-driven complex power system modeling and identification, control equation finding, infrastructure health monitoring and intelligent management.

After joining the People’s Congress Human Human Corporation this year, Sun Hao quickly formed a "Physical Driven Artificial Intelligence" research team, and published a papers in the international academic Journal Nature Subscription in October.

Up to now, he presided over or jointly hosted more than 330 million US dollars such as research projects; 50,000 papers were published in various publications such as international first-class SCI journals and computer topics.

Third, cooperate with the Meteorological Bureau to crack the weather password

The study of Sun Hao team advancing physical systems, chemical systems, biological systems, etc., to explore the various potential laws of thousands of physical worlds, and describe it in the form of mathematics.

At present, Sun Hao, Wen Ji, Lu Zhiwu, three professors and high-time high-end high-resolution data from China Meteorological Bureau to explore specific laws and equations with high-level high-resolution data, and to predict weather changes more accurately.

The traditional meteorological prediction method is based on the numerical calculation. According to the actual situation of the atmosphere, the fluid mechanics and thermodynamic equations that describe the weather evolution process are solved under certain initial values ??and boundary values, thereby predicting atmospheric motion state and weather in the future.

This exists a problem, the imaginary numerical model is in error, and the basic weather law can be captured, but it may be underestimated to some small probability of extreme weather.

How does these errors cause? Imagine models may be unreasonable, or people have not considered in place.

In this regard, Sun Hao uses AI methods, explores the laws with the actual meteorological evolution, and attempts to describe a better equation to achieve ultra-short weather forecast, and improve long-term prediction and extreme weather forecastion. Precision.

The Sun Hao team has three goals with the scientific system obtained by AI:Interpretative, push capability, generalization abilityEven if there is no event, the system can make a stable prediction.

This is quite challenging direction. The traditional AI model is a black box, but Sun Hao wants to change this concept, I hope to do "AI + small data" can still get a very reliable AI model, and can extract some unknown rules from small data.

AI explores nonlinear normal differential equations for describing chaotic power systems

This is also a very exciting direction. In scientific exploration and engineering applications, true valuable is not the amount of data, but not the information is sufficient. There is a lot of massive data, but even if there is no massive data, it is still possible to explore a simple and general law.

Mathematics is the foundation of all science, equation is an abstract expression of various scientific theories, and it is often a beautiful and beautiful equation that describes some objective laws of physical worlds.

In addition to meteorological precision forecasting, Sun Hao continued to pay attention to the progress of protein structure, automatic driving, etc., and he also considers the combination of automatic driving control systems and the like to optimize It can be interpretative.

Four,"To make big results, there must be big mind and vision"

In the College of Artificial Intelligence, Renmin University, Sun Hao is teaching graduate students "artificial intelligence interdisciplinary application thinking and actual combat".

"This class is not good." Sun Hao said that this is a new course, compared to existing artificial intelligence theoretical courses or case classes, it pays more attention to the guidance and training of students’ interdisciplinary research thinking.

For example, throw a problem, use ai method to solve it, how to embed it in the knowledge you need, and play a real role in designing the AI ??algorithm? This is the analysis capability that students should master.

He will also train students to study the articles of the top party, not only to understand the frontier method of solving the problem, but also clear how the story is talking about, and why they can make this method to solve the problem.

Sun Hao did not want to give students a limited time. When he guids Ph.D., he usually understands the students’ own ideas and career planning. Specify a direction for students who have just enrolled, but will not limit what method is used, gives doctoral students freely explored space .

"We solve this problem itself is very interesting, it is unknown world." Sun Hao said, "You make a regular, or find a new knowledge, it will become very excited, this feeling is constantly stimulating In the process, it will keep interest in interest, so it is said that there is such a trait that scientific exploration is why so many people love scientific exploration. "

He hopes that students must first love their research, clear what they want, do not have to be tangled this year, a nature is not half a year, "To make big results, there must be big mind and vision."

Everyone has different research traits, so Sun Hao will teach in accordance with the materials. For example, a student’s logic thinking is strong, learning and solving the problem, Sun Hao guides him to do some challenging things; and if a student does not have this potential, Sun Hao will slow down, come step by step. He started research.

He is happy to share your experience to the students. The doctoral student he is driving is very strong. When the students feel that the pressure is big, Sun Hao will stop the work of the hand, go out to climb the mountain and relax, and come back to see this problem, often appear new Inspiration.

At the same time, Sun Hao’s requirements for students have very high requirements: "If this student is reading a doctor, he needs to fully explore his potential and increase his research capacity to the ultimate of herself."

Do it, it is not to press the student, but it is hoped that the students can use solid basic skills after training, so that his future has a more wide direction of research. "Ai + Science Exploration" is essentially a research foundation AI method, even if students want to try some different directions, they can also swim.

For students, Sun Hao also expressed encouragement and support. In his opinion, in "AI + Science Exploration" direction, molecular effects or incentive new drug development, fluid model or drive rocket aircraft design, all kinds of applications such as this can produce value by increasing efficiency.

Conclusion: I look forward to more interdisciplinary talents.AIExplore the scientific star sea

Interpretation is the development direction of the future AI, and the combination of AI and scientific exploration is exactly an important carrier.

The current "AI + Science Exploration" is also facing multiple challenges: this is a region that requires depth interdisciplinary cross-disciplines. It is necessary to combine very strong expertise; in addition, how to make the system have both powerful learning skills, but also The beauty, this is a complex balance problem that needs to explore the new AI algorithm.

"We have made some work. I believe that in the future, we should at least have a role of guidelines." Sun Hao took some examples, including symbol enhanced learning reasoning strategies and sparse regression.

However, talents in the field of "AI + Science Exploration" are still quite scarce, and students are mostly born for computer classes. Sun Hao also hopes to see more other directions are interested in studying in this field.

"If mathematics is still good, basically think that the threshold of AI itself is very low, I am not a computer profession." He has only two basic requirements for his graduate students. First, there is enthusiasm for Ai + science, second is enough. Diligent, brave overcoming difficulties.

"Sweat and harvest are a pair of friends, diligence and knowledge is a pair of couples." He looked forward to more young people to join this direction, willing to pay sweat, to overcome a series of research problems.

Carli Lloyd scores 5 goals, US women rout Paraguay 9-0

No Carli Lloyd isn’t reconsidering her retirement — even after a five-goal game.

Lloyd hit a career high for goals in the U.S. national team’s 9-0 rout of Paraguay on Thursday night. The 39-year-old forward has just three more games with the team before she walks away from the game.

“Maybe for a split second,” Lloyd said when asked if performances like that make her want to stick around. “And then I go back to reality.”

Lloyd scored a pair of goals in the opening five minutes, and added her third and fourth before halftime as the United States built a 6-0 lead. She added her final goal in the 61st.

Lloyd has 133 international goals in 313 appearances with the national team. She moved in front of Kristine Lilly for third on the career list.

“She’s an absolute legend, just being on the field, she’s a threat, no matter who we play, when we play, where we play,” U.S. coach Vlatko Andonovski said. “Her mentality is something that’s unseen. She’s just hungry for scoring goals, just hungry to get better, and whether we play for a medal or we play Paraguay, it makes no difference. She wants to score goals.”

Lloyd’s scoring outburst was reminiscent of the 2015 World Cup final, when she scored three goals in the first 16 minutes against Japan. She announced she plans to retire from soccer after the team’s four post-Olympic games.

“That was fun,” she said about the game. “I don’t know, I’m just trying to savor it because I want time to go a little bit slower, because one game is down and I have three left.”

It was Lloyd’s first career five-goal game. She has nine career hat tricks, one fewer than Mia Hamm.

The five goals matched the U.S. record for a single game, a milestone most recently reached by Alex Morgan against Thailand during the 2019 World Cup. No player has had six.

“I wish I could do it forever, but all good things eventually come to an end and I definitely am for sure retiring,” Lloyd said. “I’m not going to come back out of retirement but you know I’m going to be the biggest cheerleader for this team and really excited to see them continue to keep crushing it.”

Andi Sullivan scored 25th before Lynn Williams’ blast from distance in the 30th made it 4-0.

Sullivan added a second goal early in the second half, before Lloyd’s fifth. Tobin Heath scored the final goal in the 86th.

The United States is in the midst of a four-game post Olympics tour. The Americans won the bronze medal in Tokyo, a somewhat disappointing finish for the defending World Cup champions.

It is the first time that the United States has faced Paraguay, which has never played in the Olympics or the World Cup.

Paraguay lost 7-0 to Japan in April. It was the team’s only previous match this year after three scheduled games against Colombia were cancelled because of the coronavirus.
Forward Christen Press was not with the national team because she is taking time off to focus on her mental health. Alyssa Naeher, Julie Ertz, Sam Mewis and Megan Rapinoe were not on the roster because of injury.

The United States plays Paraguay again on Tuesday in Cincinnati. The team is scheduled to host South Korea twice next month before a possible road trip to Australia in November.

For new hires, remote work brings challenges, opportunities

Rebekah Ingram’s remote internship has come with a series of unexpected challenges: She lacks a proper office set-up, her mother often calls for her while she works, and her dog barks during video calls.

Her situation will sound familiar to anyone who has worked from home during the coronavirus pandemic. The difference for Ingram is that she, like many other young people who started jobs in the past 18 months, hasn’t spent any time in a traditional office. She speculates that remote work is “way more informal”.

“It’s kind of trippy because…you’re working but you’re in your own environment,” said the 22-year-old, who is interning at Like Minded Females Network, a global tech and entrepreneurship non-profit based in London.

Many 2020 graduates left school and entered a world in turmoil, with limited job prospects. Some lost work opportunities as companies cancelled internships or froze hiring altogether. As restrictions have eased in many places, jobs have become easier to find, but work remains far from normal.

Most of all, many young workers say, they know they’re missing out when their office is the four walls of their bedroom. They wish they had more chances for everyday social interactions with their colleagues, both to build camaraderie and to find mentors.

Sohini Sengupta, 22, had an easy transition to remote work because she was used to doing it at school, but she feels she lacks a sense of community at her job.

“When I started working, I took a look at my workplace’s website and I could see photos of them taking trips together, enjoying themselves at the pool table at the office…something I had no chance to experience,” said Sengupta, who lives in Calcutta, India, and is working as a production trainee at a media outlet based in New Delhi.

Annabel Redgate, 25, a public relations account executive at PR agency TANK in Nottingham, England, began her current job in February. When pandemic-related restrictions began lifting a few months ago, she started to reach out to colleagues to meet for drinks after work. Now TANK has begun a staggered return to the office, and it’s the social atmosphere she’s most looking forward to.

“PR is a very personal industry, so I’m excited for the atmosphere in the office,” she said.

For Maya Goldman, a 23-year old health reporter based in Washington, DC, beginning her career remotely has meant struggling to set boundaries for herself, a process she figures she would have seen modelled by her bosses if she had been working in the office.

It was “hard to figure out … when was appropriate to tell my bosses that I was done for the night, or when I should take lunch, and how long I should take lunch for,” Goldman said.

Many employers are conscious of the need to help new remote workers feel welcome.

At 9 every morning, employees at Trevelino/Keller, a marketing firm in Atlanta, participate in “Spotify at 9”, where they all play the same song and talk about it on Slack. They’ve also held book clubs and watched TED talks virtually.

It’s part of an effort to make sure “while you’re waking up every day in your first career remotely, you feel like you’re part of a company and you’re part of our culture,” said Dean Trevelino, co-founder of the firm.

Liza Streiff, CEO at Knopman Marks Financial Training, a financial education company in New York, recently held a barbecue at her place, the first in-person event for the company since the pandemic.

Many of her employees were meeting in person for the first time. It was two of the youngest workers — an intern and another worker who recently joined full-time following an internship — who told Streiff “how much this meant to them”.

Companies are also helping employees take advantage of mentoring opportunities they may feel they’re missing out on.