1. Technical Principles
Laser radar is divided into 4 systems: laser emission, scanning system, laser reception, information processing.The transmitted laser pulse is transmitted by the drive laser, and the direction and line numbers are controlled by the high speed controller.Performance and cost is mainly optimized on the light source.
The scanning system implements a flat-screen scan with a stable rotational speed or MEMS.
Laser main photodetector receiving system, receiving back the reflected laser target object, the received signal is generated.
The information processing system, signal processing and conversion requires amplified. Get target block calculated by the information processing system in accordance with the surface, scanning the object modeled.
Performance Evaluation: line number, azimuth, scanning frames, the angular resolution, accuracy, detection range and the like. The core index is the detection range and detection angle.
Conventional mechanical technology is relatively mature path, the principle is simple, the motor rotation + mechanical structure to achieve a constant speed in the horizontal direction by 360 degree scan, the vertical orientation of the light scanning distributed. Advantages of mature technology, scanning speed, high resistance to light interference, cost-effective, can be 360-degree panoramic scans shots radars. Disadvantage is that the number of lines corresponding to a laser transceiver element, the number of lines increases the cost rising exponentially; tens source precise positioning requires a certain experience in the installation manual ability, senior engineer can do so expensive. The possibility of low volume production, automated production is difficult, requires senior and experienced engineers; the need to increase the number of lines stacked devices, long production cycle, velodyne delivery cycle more than 6 months; after being challenged by increased reliability components. On behalf of the enterprise is velodyne, Valeo; domestic game is Wo science and technology and Sagitar.
Flash pulse light source using a disposable market coverage, and map calculation using ToF, many mobile phone camera with low cost. Power can not do much, or injury to personnel, used for close-scene, AGV, robots use more. Simple principle advantage is low cost, disadvantage is the large crosstalk. Car for blind compensation is a solution, but to be placed in front of 80-100 meters is not a good path.
From the car overall cost, performance expectation is to see higher the MEMS, is the principle of mass production of the mechanical structure on the chip imputation by microelectronics processes, a small volume of the micro-galvanometer, aluminum plus a light emitting structure on the chip, and scanning angle to realize a large detection range. Change the scan mode, the transmitting end and the receiving end do transformation optimization chip architecture, the advantage of light weight low cost mass production, a small amount of technical path of the transceiver unit, and 3d achieved by scanning galvanometer of MEMS to reflect the laser beam, for laser and detector needs significantly reduced, and low cost. Key focus for scanning an object can achieve compensation algorithm, the detection range of up to 120-200 meters, a good product can sacrifice angle reaches 300-500 meters, such as Luminar products. Technical performance disadvantage is a gap, there is tradeoff between detection distance and angle. Mechanical scanning beam can be increased by superimposing the light beam transceiver implementation, the laser can be increased to increase the distance. In close-up with the blind and the forward angle of less demanding scenes still ok. Only l4 there are more than 360 requirements for mechanical scanning laser radar, autopilot many depot system is a multi-system integration, visual and millimeter wave has, before the laser radar to 200 meters, the detection angle of 60 degrees can be accepted. Lidar companies are upgrading, detection range and angle of the two core indicators
Only the OPA pure solid, the principle of controlling the light source to control the phase difference by interference velocity direction, laser light by changing the phase of the electrical signal, by constructively or destructively interfere to form a single angle controlled, electric signals only need to scan different angles, without any mechanical structure to achieve the effect of mechanical scanning. Landing hard. Omitted mechanical scanning structure, to achieve a similar mechanical pan-scan technology is expected to be the final route, but the technical difficulties, the process is important to the stability of the bottom layer. Waveguide control OPA will need to change the underlying structure of the semiconductor material to achieve a breakthrough. Currently advantage is cost-effective, low power, the future good scanning performance; however laser commissioning, operation a large amount of signal processing, high component costs, achieve more difficult. The final solution also needs 5–10 years, upstream suppliers need to mature technology.
Mainstream technology path: mechanical, solid state MEMS Flash and so on.
Special Technical Path: Dajiang and Xiaopeng, Dajiang laser light source 1 is reduced, cost reduction achieved through a high degree of special scanning manner; Ouster significantly improve reception sensitivity by replacing the light source and the self-developed mm chip, to improve the detection path .
Overall technical path is no convergence, the car costs and weigh on core indicators, pointing in the basic mechanical, MEMS and other three options and more.
2, a laser light source, the detector cost structure and so on
Currently various different routes, laser, the MEMS galvanometer, chips, circuit boards transmitting end, about 30%, the laser floating large, depending on whether the 905 or 150 source, additional mems galvanometer suteng so do a lot of work on the galvanometer, galvanometer radius to lift from 1-2mm 5-7mm, receiving a reflected light receiving surface is large. The transmitting end is the major cost components.
The receiving end, the receiving plate and the chip, 20% -30%, fluctuate, because of the different chips.
Housing structure 10% 10%, optical components such as lenses.
MEMS assembly and adjust labor costs and the like 10%, 50% mechanical labor costs.
3, most of the plants with a light source 905, Luminar and 150 of generic light, two light sources the advantages and disadvantages? Optimistic about what?
The core difference in detection range. 905 light source detection range of 100-150 meters is very good, only 200 meters further to increase the transmission power of the human eye impact, all the way to see the laser radar vehicle, increase the power of the human eye would endanger security. The light source 905 mainly made up of 30-50 meters blind, unmanned AGV car, on the car headlights and other applications to detect a curb. In the words of the forward speed of the Program, Teng, but less than 200 meters.
150 is a good source core strengths detection range, Luminar and up to 150 general-purpose light source can reach 300-500 meters, another eye-safe better. However, the price is high, to a few hundred dollars, the light source 905 is equivalent to 6-7 times. A light source chip 150 of the receiving end to change the development and optimization do, have deep technical accumulation.
4, long-term costs to see what level to large-scale car?
The price of the laser radar factory is very high, but the cost will have a significant decline in 10,000 levels, and the laser radar manufacturer’s own plan, Luminar announced the price of 1,000 dollars, customers are Volvo and Model, the detection distance of more than 300 meters , Use 105 nm light sources.
Sagitar, optimized the detection distance through the spray mirror, with a 905 light source to achieve a 200-meter detection distance, priced at $ 1998.
Innoviz’s customers are BMW, the progress is slow, PRO1 and 2 are 250 meters, the angle is different, the prices of 500 US dollars, $ 550 meters of products.
Laser radar manufacturers are between 1000-2000 dollars, which is a preliminary mass production price.
The car factory generally is expected to be within 1,000 dollars in the cost of laser radar. Take a new energy car as an example, 400-500 US dollars fixed price, the car factory’s own expectation will drop to 200-300 dollars. When millimeter wavelene reaches 200-300 dollars, the laser radar is reduced to this number and the car factory is expected.
If you have a batch of cars, you are expected to have 500-1000 US dollars, and some manufacturers have a 500-US dollars to grab the market.
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5. How much is the amount of laser radar planning in the factory?
There are many models, the amount is not so good, can be converted in the new energy industry, such as luminar, customer Volvo and Model recently depicted a few cars. Domestic Sagitar and Hechuan set point. Xiaopeng shipment has accumulated 100,000 units. P5 has started plus laser radar, and the P5 high-end models are selected from the laser radar. It is supplied by Dasheng, high with 30% -50%, and now the shipments are 8,000 per month, monthly laser radar Shipment of 2,000-3000 units. Xiaopeng G9 is a sagitar, plus P7, 1-200 months, so laser radar is a magnitude of about 5,000.
Other cars must be cargured, and the cycle is relatively long.
6. Which is the final plan?
Tesla’s Mask idea is relatively simple, I feel that people drive against the eyes, the camera is better than the human eye. Can’t say anyone who is wrong, Tesla is very high, and the high-end game can be run. Tesla cost management is strict, and it does not feel laser radar on technological maturity and cost recognition.
Since Xiaopeng added laser radar, it was rapid. Domestic vehicle factory is more active laser radar, Wei to ES8 crash event, industry insiders believe that laser radar can identify construction marks, perhaps the laser radar can avoid it.
7. Among the A-share suppliers, the value of optical parts, barriers are high, can it benefit?
High industrial value, optical components such as light source are currently related to market paths have not converge, and in the process of improving the core indicators, it is a key component of promoting performance in the system. For laser radar, it will be high in the next year. Moreover, the light source is not only used, mapping, unmanned cars, and robots may assist in the future, where the light source is the core device, the industry chain value is high.
Optical benefit laser radar development bonus, currently short-deficit and technical paths have not been converged, technical indicators have improved space, and third party teams have good living space. With some car companies, Haoyu provides solutions. When the amount is small, there is no energy research and development, and the supplier will be cut, and the scale supply has market bonus.
8. Can the laser radar can do?
The automatic driving upstream is positioning and perception, and the perception is the use of camera millimeter waves, and the midstream is decision-making and execution, and different manufacturers have different programs.
First, the L4 automatic driving company such as Modely, Baidu, etc., the execution algorithm is in his own hands. Some manufacturers bought radar and other components to do L4 systems, and the algorithm is in the manufacturer’s hand, and the laser radar is OK as long as it is good.
Second, Xiaopeng and other new forces, the laser radar also requires the algorithm to be open. Xiaopeng uses the laser radar of Dado this year, and the cloud map is particularly uneven, and many difficulties have been found in the back of the automatic driving architecture. The new forces increase the investment in talent, and in-depth understanding of the automatic driving architecture, which has the requirements for laser radar operation. Overall Softness is required, soft aspects require information to be collected and matched quickly.
The third is that the large-scale car factory, such as Beiqi with Huawei, maybe after all car companies are Huawei, like this, Huawei requires a lot of hardware and software.
9. How to see the whole machine?
Haoyu purchases the upstream components to integrate, its core in the optical parts.
10, Xiaopeng change supplier specific situation?
Triad is a laser source. There are two fast-rotating prisms that make the optical path to achieve petal scan. The center position is particularly sparse, information collection, and the imaging docking architecture bring direct trouble, it is difficult to compensate for algorithm. This program is dropped, and only one of the light source is left, and the special architecture leads to a difficult algorithm to make up for defects. Xiaopeng P7 supplier is Dacheng, G9 supplier has not announced ..
11, Turda cost?
Tita is also around 1,000 US dollars. Tita’s drilling solution is also a way to reflect more optical path scans. 8 laser transmission and reception can achieve mechanical 96-line number scan, theoretically cost, but the saves is not as good as MEMS and Dashi Program, estimated to have 1,000 dollars.
12, US stocks have a few company share prices?
The company’s valuation system of the secondary market looks at two indicators.
Luminar is a solid state, a quantity of productivity than a mechanical, so Velodyne is only 15-20 billion US dollars, and Luminar is $ 15 billion.
From a model, Model announced that the forwardlim of luminar is visible to the naked eye. INNOVIZ is set to BMW, the progress is not smooth, and the business is slow, that is, 11-20 valuation.
OUSTER uses special technical paths, the benefits are extra-cheap, but the power of several watts is not realized, and can only increase the photosensitivity. It seems that the market has questions about the route, there are many light pollution, how to eliminate the noise of crosstalk, so there is only 1.1 billion US dollars after the listing.
13. The car factory drops to 200-300 dollars is the value of a single laser radar. What is the amount of bicycle?
L4 companies need 360 degrees of scan, but many car companies are integrated architectures, there are many millimeters waves, ultrasound, camera, laser radar only 120 degrees or forward, and do 360 degrees, stitching three The roof can also achieve 360 ??degrees, and the difficulty of algorithm is said. Overall price 500-1000 can be accepted.
14. There are many domestic cars, and they choose domestic suppliers. Why is the supplier?
Luminar does not have a prototype, can’t find related products, Silicon Valley friends say that the Luminar prototype with a seal to take the seal, Luminar has a military technical background, which may have this reason not to enter China.
Mechanical Today’s shipments will exceed Velodyne, product performance is still better than foreign suppliers, and domestic supplier products are good enough.
In addition, the process of incorporating the system has a complex algorithm docking process, and domestic engineers are more convenient to live.
15. If you go to the semi-solid and solid state direction, the integratedization is getting higher and higher, the transferred optical components will disappear, and the amount of optical value will fall, how to think?
Cycle mismatch, new energy cars visible to the naked eye is in the first year. It is high in the first year. The laser radar is rapidly increased as the core architecture market, and the laser radar manufacturer is hard enough. The car factory is not particularly sensitive. I will install it first, and I have a difference in science.
Everyone thinks MEMS is the most feasible, because solving problems such as mass production, performance can also be, it is the best to eat bonus solutions, and the cycle matches can be easily transformed.
OPA pure solid state has a lot of company layout, millet in pure solids and mechanical voters, OPA underlayer, chip development, algorithm program, the whole vehicle must improve, to the MEMS window is long, There is enough company to grow up.
16. Recomminal related companies?
The receiver Japan is better, and the MEMS technology has a lot of differentiation. Domestic manufacturers, the amount of laser radar has not yet, the transmission and reception chip does not go to a certain amount, and the laser radar manufacturer will do it yourself.
17. What are the parts and the foreign parts you have to master by the laser radar yourself?
It is still not yet mature, so I have to rank it in person. After millimeter righte is ripe, the components are basically extracted. After ripe, there is no need to control the components in your own hands. It is tested that the process mechanical architecture, optical path, software algorithm, etc. In the early days, it is an iterative improvement process. It is necessary to do the transmission and receiving chip, kick off the distance from others, and have high R & D fees can also be understood.
18. Where is the industrial chain breaking opportunity?
Laser light sources can be large, and light source manufacturers such as resonant cavity at first level need to have a good light source to reduce costs and enhance emission performance. The transmitting end is the most important cost composition, and there is more opportunities for the light source.
19, chip, laser cost proportion, new companies in the industrial chain or mature companies have high probability?
The first-level market is much more, the experts are biased towards the level.
The new manufacturer has a small head, and the amount is small to match the car factory.
There are many companies that want to do light source this year. There are many industrial laser manufacturers. It has been killed into the Red Sea. This year, it is automatic driving, the core is that the laser radar has stimulated market demand. Many entrepreneurs have invested huge research and development costs, and the team’s background is very professional, and the entrepreneurial company has natural window-oriented advantages.
The industry will have a massive production advantage in the maturity stage. But now technical indicators iterate, the technology route has not been charged, and better new companies.
20. The convergence time of the technology route?
Unlike semiconductor bodies, there are so many companies at home and abroad, may not converge into one or two, only $ 100-20 billion valuation is available when Volvo and Model’s Luminar is available, and the core vehicle factory has an opportunity. It does not converge from the technical path for 3 years.
21, industry spread trends, how does the industry drops to 200 US prolles, such as how to reduce the transmit-end receiving end?
The outer casing structure is not high, the decline is small.
Handling the general-purpose chip on the motherboard will have a decline in price, which can drop 10%.
The mass production can reduce costs, this year, when the laser radar plant is not large enough to use MPW, the TSMC is still caused to cause warp, this batch is abolished, and there is no good rate after mass production line. This problem is.
The transmitting end is an important component that can be reduced. The 905 nm light source is faster, and 150 is slower.
22. The laser radar, Xiaopeng P5 and Tesla are not particularly strong. What is the reason?
It is an accident that can feel the difference. The reason why high redundant reaps are safe, because each component has limitations, Tesla’s automatic driving rain is not open, the camera can not rain in rain, the millimeter wavele does not recognize the road sign, purely locate the tunnel Can’t, the laser radar is not in the rain. High reduction is for security and underlying safety.ε ?? ES8 If there is a laser radar accident, you can’t know.
23, is the laser radar is a transition plan?
The low-speed market ratio such as robots is cost, and there is alternative. However, the new energy car L4L5 is a problem that the laser radar is a core component, pure visual high fog, rainwater, etc. is difficult to solve. An example of the camera defect is that if the camera is purely relying on the camera, it will instantly account for the visual field of the camera. The algorithm is unable to solve, the camera has limitations. Therefore, millimeter waves, laser radar, etc. are indispensable components.